Date of Birth: 04/01/1809
Place of birth: Couvreux
Who invented the font for blind people?
Braille was born on January 4, 1809 in Couvreux (Coupvray), a small town east of Paris (Paris). Together with his parents, two older sisters and older brother, he lived on a farm three hectares of land and vineyards. His father, Simon-Rene Braille (Simon-Ren & # 233; Braille), owned a successful tannery by making harnesses and other leather items. Ever since he learned to walk, little Louis often played in his father`s workshop and at the age of three years, trying to pierce the piece of leather harness with a knife, like an awl, he seriously injured his eye. The local doctor put a bandage on the damaged eye and sent the boy`s parents to the famous Parisian surgeon, but that failed to correct the situation. Moreover, the child was blind in one eye, inflammation spread to the second and final five years Louis became blind.
His parents - that was quite unusual for the time - put a lot of effort to their youngest boy grew and developed normally, as far as possible, and with their help, Louis got it. He has learned to be guided in his native village, moving with the help of walking sticks, which he had made his father for him, and his lively and creative mind is so impressed with the local teachers and a priest, that they advised parents to give Louis a real education. Until ten years he studied in his native IWRM but the mind of the child and the diligence demanded more, and Louis became a pupil of one of the first in France and in the world of schools for the blind, the Royal Institute for Blind Children (Institut royal des jeunes aveugles). The school was opened in 1784 by the great educator and teacher, Valentin Hauy (Valentin Ha & # 252; y) by means of the Philanthropic Society (Soci & # 233; t & # 233; philanthropique).
At that time, the school desperately needs funds, but even in this state it could teach blind children to interact with the world around them and give them an education.
Children are taught to read by a system developed Hauy, who, being sighted, devoted his life to the blind - and even worked in Russia. In typography at the school, he created a small library for their wards - books were printed on thick paper with embossed lettering, and readers can learn letters, feeling their fingers. Of course, Hauy Braille books have helped, but the boy`s inquisitive mind despaired of how little information could fit into such a book. In addition, they were very expensive, they could read and sighted people with no special training, but to write this system students can not, and Louis wrote letters home with the help of stencils of thick leather, made for him a father.
After graduating from training, Louis remained in school as a teacher assistant and the teacher took place in 1833. Most of the rest of his life he taught history, geometry and algebra. In addition, the young man was a talented musician, cellist and organist, and has held the post of organist in churches of Paris, starting from 1834.
Braille since childhood was determined to make reading and writing everyday part of life for blind people, therefore, learned in 1821 of the communication system, developed by the French military, captain Charles Barbier (Charles Barbier), represents a code of dots and dashes, printed on thick paper, studied it with the permission of the captain. Barbier`s system was too complicated, but it is inspired to create their own braille tactile Braille.
Louis did not spare time and effort, and it was a system almost completed already in 1824, when he was only 15 years old. In 1829 he published his development, and in 1837 further simplified the font, so that the characters could recognize a single touch of a finger. In addition, he was able to adapt its system of musical notation.
Alas, poor health and early death - Louis Braille died at age 43 on January 6, 1852 - did not allow the creator Braille `uvidet` his invention spread throughout the world. For two years after his death at the insistence of admiring students learning at the Institute moved into Braille.
First Braille has spread to the French-speaking countries and the colonies, and was later adapted for other languages.
House in IWRM Braille where he spent his childhood and where he died, now turned into a museum, and the town square that bears his name, is a large monument. Since 1952, his remains are buried in the Paris Pantheon (Panth & # 233; on). Asteroid 9969 was named in honor of Louis Braille.