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Leonid Brejnev

Picture of Leonid Brejnev

Date of Birth: 12/19/1906

Age: 75

Place of birth: Kamenka (now Dnipropetrovsk)

Citizenship: Russia

Background

Born Brezhnev Leonid Ilyich 6 (19) in December 1906, in the village of Kamenka (now Dnipropetrovsk), Ukraina.Trudovuyu life began with fifteen years. After graduating in 1927, the Kursk-reclamation land surveying land surveyor in college he worked Kochanowski district Orsha District of the Belarusian Soviet Union. The Young Communist League joined in 1923, the Communist Party members - in 1931. In 1935 he graduated from the Metallurgical Institute in Dneprodzerzhinsk, ibid worked as an engineer at a metallurgical plant.

In his first important post in the Dnipropetrovsk regional committee of the party Brezhnev was put forward in 1938, when he was about 32 years old. At the time of Brezhnev`s career he was not the fastest. Brezhnev was not a careerist, which makes its way up, pushing the elbows of other applicants and betraying their friends. He had already distinguished serenity, loyalty to colleagues and superiors, and not as he made his way forward, as the plug is moving forward more. In the first stage of Brezhnev promoted ahead of his friend on the Dnepropetrovsk Metallurgical Institute Pear, who was the first Secretary of the Party Committee of Dneprodzerzhinsk. After the war, Pear remained on the political work in the army. He died in 1982 in the rank of Colonel General. Brezhnev, who was present at this funeral, suddenly fell in front of the grave of his friend, burst into tears. This episode was incomprehensible to many.

During the war, Brezhnev was not a strong protection, and he moved a little. At the beginning of the war he was awarded the rank of colonel, at the end of the war, he was a major-general, advancing only one rank. Do not spoil it and part of the awards. By the end of the war he had two Orders of the Red Banner, one of the Red Star, Order of Bogda at Khmelnitsky and two medals. At the time for the General it was not enough. During the Victory Day parade on Red Square, where Major-General Brezhnev was with the team at the head of the pivot columns of its front, the plug on the chest was much less winning than the other generals.

After the war, Brezhnev owed his promotion to Khrushchev, as well silent in their PLAY-Minani.

After working in Zaporozhye Brezhnev, also on the recommendation of Khrushchev, he was nominated for the post of first secretary of the Dnipropetrovsk regional committee of the party, and in 1950 the post of first secretary of the CC CP (6) Moldova. At the XIX Congress of the Party in the autumn of 1952 Brezhnev how ru-kovoditel Moldovan Communists was elected to the Central Committee. In co-short time he came even to the Bureau (the candidate) and the Secretariat`s Central Committee, which had been greatly expanded by Stalin`s proposal. During the congress, Stalin first uvi del Brezhnev. Old and sick wild-menters drew attention to the large and well-dressed 46-year-old Brezhnev. Stalin said that this party leader of the Moldavian SSR. - Stalin said. November 7, 1952 Brezhnev For the first-tions took the podium of the Mausoleum. Until March 1953, Brezhnev, as well as other members of the Bureau, was in Moscow and was waiting when they gather for the meeting and distribute responsibilities. In Moldova, he was released from work. But Stalin never once did not collect them.

After Stalin`s death, the Bureau and the Secretariat of the Central Committee of the CPSU was immediately reduced. From the composition was removed and Brezhnev, but he has not returned to Moldova, and was appointed as the initial-com Political Department of the Navy of the USSR. He received the rank of lieutenant-general and had to wear a uniform again. The Central Committee Brezhnev neiz Menno-supported Khrushchev.

In early 1954, Khrushchev sent him to Kazakhstan to lead the development of virgin lands. He returned to Moscow only in 1956, and after the XX Congress of the CPSU again became one of the secretaries of the Central Committee and the candy-datom member of the Presidium of the CC CPSU. Brezhnev had to control the development of heavy industry, defense and aerokosmimeskoy later, but all the major issues personally decided Khrushchev and Brezhnev acted as SPO-Koine and faithful assistant. After the June plenary session of the Central Committee in 1957, he became a raving-Neuve Presidium member. Khrushchev appreciated his loyalty, but are not considered to sufficiently-strong employee.

After retiring Voroshilov Brezhnev succeeded him as Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Were-USSR. In some of the western-biographies of the assignment is estimated almost as Brezhnev`s defeat in the struggle for power. But dei sitivity Brezhnev was not an asset-nym participant in this struggle and was very pleased with the new appointment. He never molested while the post of head-TII pairs or government. He was quite satisfied with the role of the forehead-century manual. Even in 1956-1957. he was able to transfer to Moscow of certain people with whom he worked in Moldova and Ukraine. One of the first was Trapeznikov and Chernenko, who began to work in the personal secretariat Brezhnev. The Presidium of the Supreme Council, but it was Chernenko became chief Kanz-malaria Brezhnev. In 1963, when F. Kozlov lost not only the favor of Khrushchev, but he was struck by a stroke, Khrushchev had long hesitated in choosing their new leader. Ultimately, the choice fell on him Brezhnev, who was elected secretary of the CPSU Central Committee. Khrushchev had very good health and calc-Tuva long remain in power. Meanwhile, Brezhnev himself was Nedov-linen Khrushchev this decision, although re-displaced in the Secretariat has increased its real power and influence. He did not longed to plunge into the extremely difficult and full of trouble the work of the Central Committee secretary. Brezhnev was not the organizer of the displacements-of Khrushchev, though he knew of the impending Xia shares. Among its main organizato-ditch there was no agreement on many self-Issues. In order not to deepen the differences that could derail the whole thing, they agreed on the election of Brezhnev, suggesting that this will be a temporary solution. Leonid Ilyich gave his consent.

Once at the head of party and state, Brezhnev, as can be judged by his behavior, constantly felt an inferiority complex. At heart, he still realized in the first years of his government, that it lacks many of the qualities and knowledge to guide such a state as the Soviet Union. His aides assured him otherwise, he became flatter, and more than gratitude Brezhnev took this flattery, the more frequent and exorbitant she became. Gradually, it became necessary to him, as a constant dose of drugs.

They were created and various myths, particularly about the military biography of Brezhnev. As political commissar Brezhnev did not take part in the biggest and most decisive battles of World War II. One of the most important episodes in the combat biographies of the 18th Army - is to seize and hold for 225 days a bridgehead south of Novorossiysk in 1943, known as "Little Earth".

Not respect, but only evoked ridicule and an amazing propensity to Brezhnev Misha D external honors and awards. After the war, under Stalin, Brezhnev was awarded the Order of Lenin. Over 10 years of Brezhnev, Khrushchev`s leadership was awarded the Order of Lenin and the Order of the Patriotic War of 1 degree. However, after Brezhnev himself came to the leadership of the country and the party, the awards began to pour in on him like a cornucopia. By the end of his life he had orders and medals more than Stalin and Khrushchev together. In this he was anxious to get it fighting awards. He was four times Hero of the Soviet Union, that status may be assigned only three times (only Zhukov was an exception). Dozens of HAPs, he received the title of Hero and the highest orders of all socialist countries. He awarded the Order of the Latin American and African countries. Brezhnev was awarded the highest Soviet military award "Victory", which was handed over only the largest polkovodstvam, and thus for outstanding victories across the fronts or groups of fronts. Naturally, with so many senior military decorations Brezhnev could not be satisfied with the rank of lieutenant general. In 1976, Brezhnev was awarded the title of Marshal of the Soviet Union. At the next meeting with the veterans of the 18th Army Brezhnev came to the cloak and went into the room, ordered: "Attention Goes marshal!" Throwing off his cloak, he appeared before the veterans in the new marshal`s uniform. Pointing to the marshal`s stars on the shoulder straps, Brezhnev proudly said: "rose".

During the funerals of Soviet leaders decided to carry their awards, pinned to a small velvet cushion. When buried Suslov, fifteen senior officers carried the coffin of his medals. But Brezhnev was more than two hundred awards and medals! It was necessary to attach to each velvet cushion on several orders and medals and honorary escort limit forty-four senior officers.

Brezhnev was lost on all sorts of ceremonies, sometimes hiding the confusion unnatural-term sedentary. But boleeuzkom circle, during frequent meetings or on days of rest Brezhnev could be a completely different person, more self parking nym, resourceful, sometimes exhibiting a sense of humor. This recall almost all the politicians who dealt with him, of course, before the start of his serious illness. Apparently realizing this, Brezhnev soon began to prefer to conduct important-WIDE talks at his dacha in Oreanda in the Crimea or in the hunting ground of the Zavidovo near Moscow.

Former German Chancellor Willy Brandt, whom Brezhnev had met several times, wrote in his memoirs:

"Unlike Kosygin, my direct negotiating partner, 1970, which was basically cold and calm, Brezhnev could be impulsive, even angry. Changes in mood, Russian soul, the ability to quickly tears. He had a sense of YuMO-ra. He not only long hours bathed in Oreanda, but a lot of talking and laughing. He talked about the history of their country, but only about the last ten-letiyah ... It was obvious that Brezhnev tried to monitor their appearance. His figure did not correspond to the ideas, which could cart-penetrate on its official PHOTOGRAPH-fiyam. it was not in any way an impressive personality, and, in spite of the heaviness of his body, he gave the impression of an elegant, lively, energy--tech movements, cheerful man. his facial expressions and gestures squeeze-whether southerner, especially when he felt relaxed during the interview. he was of Ukrainian industrial area, where a variety of mixed national influence. More than anything else on the formation of Brezhnev as the human impact of the second World war. He spoke with great excitement and a bit naive about how Hitler was able to fool Stalin ... "

Kissinger also called Brezhnev "real Russian, full of feeling, with a rough sense of humor." When Kissinger, now as Secretary of State, came in 1973 in Moscow to arrange a visit of Leonid Brezhnev to the United States, almost all of the five-day negotiations took place in Zavidovo hunting ground during walking, hunting, lunch and dinner. Brezhnev even showed his guest the art of driving a motor vehicle. Kissinger writes in his memoirs: "One summed it me to the black" Cadillac ", which Nixon gave him a year ago on the advice of Dobrynin With Brezhnev driving rushed us at high speed on narrow, winding country roads, so that one could only pray to. at the next crossroads there was some police and put an end to this risky game. But it was too incredible, because if here, in the country, and would have had a traffic policeman, he would hardly dare to stop the car of the Secretary-General of the party. Fast ride ended at the pier. Brezhnev put me on a boat with underwater wings, which, fortunately, he was not himself. But I had the impression that this boat has to beat the speed record, which established the Secretary General at the time of our trip by car. "

Very directly behaved Brezhnev many methods, for example, on the occasion of space flight of the joint Soviet-American project "Soyuz - Apollo". However, the Soviet people have not seen and did not know of such a cheerful and direct Brezhnev. In addition, the image of a young Brezhnev, who did not often shown on television, was supplanted in the minds of the people a way seriously ill, inactive, and tongue-tied man who almost daily appeared on our television screens in the last 5-6 years of his life.

Brezhnev was generally sympathetic man, he did not like the complications and conflicts, neither in politics nor in personal relationships with their colleagues. When such a conflict does arise, Brezhnev tried to avoid extreme solutions. When conflicts within the leadership, very few people go to retire. Most of the "disgraced" the leaders remained in the "nomenclature", but only 2-3 stops below. Politburo member could become a deputy minister and a former minister, the secretary of the party, a member of the CPSU Central Committee headed by Ambassador to the small country: Denmark, Belgium, Australia and Norway.

This goodwill is often passed in the indulgence, and which was used by dishonest people. Brezhnev often left their posts, not only guilty, but thieving employees. It is known that without the sanction of the Politburo judicial authorities can not carry out investigation in the case of any member of the CPSU Central Committee.

It was not unusual, and such that Brezhnev wept at official receptions. This sentiment is so little characteristic of politicians, sometimes benefited ... art. For example, even the movie "The Belarusian Railway Station" was created in the early 70s. It was a good picture, but it does not allow the screen, assuming that the film is not in the best light represented by the Moscow police. Advocates view the pictures made with the participation of its members of the Politburo. The film is an episode which shows how random and many years later encountered fellow soldiers sing a song about the troop battalion, in which they once served. This song, composed B.Okudzhava, touched Brezhnev, and he wept. Of course, the film was immediately resolved to hire, and the song of the troop battalion since almost always included in the repertoire of the concerts, which visited Brezhnev.

Another 50-year and even 60-year-old Brezhnev lived, not worrying too much about the state of his health. He did not refuse all the pleasures that life can give, and that is not always conducive to longevity.

The first serious health problems appeared Brezhnev, probably, in the period 1969-1970. Next to him became permanent duty doctors, and in the places where he lived, were equipped medical rooms. At the beginning of 1976. Brezhnev happened what is called clinical death. However, it managed to bring back to life, although he could not work, because his thinking and speech have been violated within two months. Since then, next to Brezhnev was constantly a group of doctors, rescuers, armed with the necessary equipment. Although the health of our leaders is among the closely guarded state secrets, progressive weakness Brezhnev was obvious to all who could see it on their television screens. American journalist Simon Head wrote: "Every time this fat figure dares to go beyond the Kremlin walls, the outside world is looking closely razruschayuschegosya health symptoms With the death of Mikhail Suslov, the other pillars of the Soviet regime, this terrible attention can only increase during November.. (1981) meetings with Helmut Schmidt, when Brezhnev almost fell when walking, he looked at times as if can not stretch and day. "

In essence, he was slowly dying in the eyes of the world. He had in the past six years, several heart attacks and strokes, and the Product Recovery doctors several times taken out of its state of clinical death. The last time this happened in April 1982 after an accident in Tashkent.

Certainly painful condition Brezhnev began to reflect on his ability to govern. He was often forced to interrupt the performance of their duties or their place the burden on the continuously growing staff of their personal assistants. Weekday Brezhnev fell for several hours. He began to go on holiday not only in summer but also in spring. Gradually, it became increasingly difficult to perform even simple protocol duties, and he ceased to understand what is going on in the district. However, a lot of powerful, deeply corrupt, mired in corruption, people around him are interested in that Brezhnev occasionally appeared in public at least as the formal head of state. They literally took him by the hand and reached the worst: old age, infirmity and disease became Soviet leader objects not so much sympathy and pity of his fellow citizens as irritation and derision, which expressed more and more openly.

Another day of November 10, 1982, Brezhnev stood for several hours during the parade and demonstrations, despite the bad weather, on the podium of the Mausoleum, and foreign newspapers wrote that he looked even better than usual. The end came, however, after only three days. In the morning at breakfast time Brezhnev came to his office to take something and did not return. Alarmed by his wife walked out of the dining room behind him and saw him lying on the carpet beside the desk. The efforts of doctors at this time have not been successful, and four hours after the heart has stopped Brezhnev, they announced his death. The next day, the Central Committee of the CPSU and the Soviet Government formally notified the world about the death of Leonid Brezhnev.