# Leonard Max Adleman

**Biography**American scientist - theorist in the field of computer science, professor of computer science and molecular biology at the University of Southern California. He is known as the co-author of RSA encryption (Rivest - Shamir - Adleman, 1977) and DNA computing. RSA is widely used in computer security applications, including HTTPS.Adleman was born in California in 1945, grew up in San Francisco. After schooling, he entered the University of California at Berkeley. It was not his first choice on the academic career - initially, he wanted to become a chemist, then a doctor, until I finally settled on the mathematics profession. Adleman received a bachelor`s degree in mathematics in 1968. Following the award of the scientific degree he worked as a programmer at the Bank of America. At the same time, he went to medical school, where he was received, but changed his mind and decided to become a physicist. Therefore Adleman started taking lessons at the University of San Francisco. But the physics of it was not to the soul. " I do not like doing experiments, I like to think about things ," - he said. He then returned to Berkeley, where he received his Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering and Computer Science in 1976 and wrote his thesis " Theoretical aspects of computational complexity. "After that Adleman got a job in Massachusetts Technical Institute at the Department of Mathematics. Initially, he was hired as an instructor, he became assistant professor of mathematics in 1977 and, finally, an associate professor (associate professor) in 1979. In 1980, Adleman was appointed at the University of Southern California at the Faculty of Computer Science. In 1983 he became a professor, and in 1985 - received the title of Professor Henry Salvatori Computer Science (the Henry Salvatori professor of Computer Science). At the same time, he was a professor of molecular biology. Throughout this career path main area of interest and research was Adleman theoretical computer science, in particular, the complexity of some theoretical problems, which became the basis for some of his famous works on cryptography. He was one of the RSA cryptosystem developers, together with Ronald Rivest and Adi Shamir. This encryption algorithm was developed by them in 1976 at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. For his contribution to the invention of RSA cryptosystem Adleman, along with Ronald Rivest and Adi Shamir, he won the award Kanellakisa Paris (Paris Kanellakis) for the theory and practice of 1996 Turing Award 2002which is often called the Nobel Prize of Computer Science.

In 1994, in " Molecular computation of solutions to combinatorial problems " (Molecular Computation of Solutions To Combinatorial Problems), he describes the experimental use of DNA as a computational system. In it, he solves the problem of the Hamiltonian path in the case of the seven peaks, NP-complex, similar to the traveling salesman problem. Despite the fact that in this case the solution is trivial, this work demonstrated the first successful use of DNA for algorithmic calculations. It has been shown that DNA computing have the potential as a solution to some of the other large-scale combinatorial search problems. In 2002, he and his research team was able to solve " non-trivial " issue by using DNA computing. In particular, they chose 20 - variable Boolean satisfiability problem, with more than 1 million. Potential solutions. They did this in a manner similar to that Adleman used in his seminal 1994. First there was a mixture of synthesized DNA strands - a logical reflection of the space of solutions. This mixture is then algorithmically processed using biochemical techniques, filtering out the "wrong" thread, leaving only the thread that " satisfy " the problem. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the remaining strands showed "right" solution to the original problem.

Adleman is also known as the man who coined the term " computer virus " after a meeting with one of them created his student Fred Cohen (Fred Cohen) in 1983. Cohen and Adleman decided to publish the code of the virus, suggestingthat is the work on the preparation and dissemination of information. Adleman felt that computer viruses can open a lot of opportunities, and that the potential benefits derived from them in the future technology may outweigh the negative aspects of their use.

As a result of its activities in the field of molecular biology,Adleman made a mathematical model of immune deficiency caused by the AIDS virus. This provided an understanding of how the virus works, and also opened a variety of research to find a cure. Adleman, along with David Vofsi (David Wofsy) from the University of California at SanFrancisco described the results of their verification of the hypothesis in February 1993 issue of the journal acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Unfortunately, the research community responses to the ideas were neobnadezhivayuschimi Adleman. Undeterred, Adleman decided to acquire a deeper understanding of the biology of HIV in order to be more convincing. He entered the molecular biology lab at USC and began to learn the methods of modern biology under the direction of Nicholas Chelyapova (Nickolas Chelyapov), which is currently the chief scientist in Adleman `s own laboratory in.

Adleman also described a new method of establishing ,whether a number is prime (this part of the work he is most proud of) . He was also a consultant in mathematics that deals with cryptography, for the Hollywood film " tihushnik " ("Sneakers").

At the beginning of the twenty-first century, Adleman was still working at the University of Southern California. He now lives with his wife in Los Angeles ,by whom he had three children.

Awards and honors

2006 - Adleman was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.

2002 - Turing Award.

2000 - Award in the field of computers and communications named Koji Kobayashi (IEEE Kobayashi Award for Computers and Communications). (Together with Ronald Rivest and Adi Shamir)

2000 -the title of Professor Emeritus of the University of Southern California.

1996 - Association of Computer Engineering Award Paris Kanelakisa of theory and practice. For his work on public key encryption. (Together with Ronald Rivest, Adi Shamir, Whitfield Diffie, Martin Hellman and Merkle Raf)

1996 - elected to the National Academy of Engineering. 1995 - honored a graduate of the Faculty of Computer Science and Engineering University of California, Berkeley.

1985 - received the title of Professor Henry Salvatori Computer Science.

1991 - Winner of the University of Southern California. 1978 - award for the best work on the IEEE group information " method for producing digital signatures and public-key cryptosystems " theory. (Together with Ronald Rivest and Adi Shamir)