Kurt Bruno Gottschaldt
Date of Birth: 04/25/1902
Gottschaldt (Gottschaldt) Kurt Bruno (born 04.25.1902.) - German psychologist, researcher of problems of general and genetic psychology. Education, psychology, philosophy, physics and chemistry received from 1920 to 1926 at the University of Berlin Friedrich-Wilhelm (Ph.D., 1926); from 1926 to 1929 he - assistant at the Psychological Institute of the University of Berlin, from 1929 to 1933 - a leading psychologist and director of the psychological laboratory of Children`s sanatorium for the mentally ill Rhineland in Bonn, he defended his thesis for the replacement in 1932 assistant professor, from 1933 to 1935 Gottschaldt - senior assistant, Bonn University Psychological Institute, where his research of the formation of goals and dynamics of the level of claims ( "Der Aufbau des Kindlichen Handelns", "Beiheft zur Zeitsch f angewandte Psychol... ", Lpz., 1933). Since 1935 Gottschaldt worked in Berlin in the Anthropology Institute, Human Heredity and evgeniki here headed the laboratory of genetic psychology and was the director of the City Children`s Hospital, in 1938, he - an extraordinary professor at the University of Berlin in 1946 - an ordinary professor, with 1946 to 1961 - director of the Psychological Institute of the Humboldt University of Berlin, from 1961 until his retirement in 1970 - the director of the Psychological Institute in Gottingen. Member of the German Academy of Sciences (1955), led to her section of Experimental and Applied Psychology, an honorary member of the German Society of Psychologists (1982). Gottschaldt - a representative of the Berlin School of Gestalt psychology, to study the process of formation level of claims, changes in psychological action framework to achieve the objective, the mood of the twins, self-perception: is widely known for his experiments, which began with the question of how he sees himself as a man in the mirror - the subjects could expand or contract the facial image in the picture, adjusting it under their own image, as a result it was concluded that the presence of a person of the ideal self-image, which serves as a criterion for evaluation ( "Uber Persona Phanomene", "Zeitsch. f. Psychol.", 1954, 157, S. The 163-200).
He received recognition as the author of the original experimental situations and techniques, in particular techniques of hidden figures, a report on which he came to Moscow in the 20-ies ( "Gottschaldt figure"), designed to study the structure of visual and cognitive abilities. When creating this method, he proceeded from a purely conceptual problems: if the perception of any form is determined by factors of past experience, the complex figure that contains the previously perceived simple, will repeatedly be perceived as direct ostaya plus additional parts, but experimental research has shown that it is extremely rare, and therefore not past experience leads directly to a specific perceptual organization. Personal aspects of this method have been further developed in the test "masked figures" Mr. Witkin.