Date of Birth: 04/02/1752
Place of birth: Konigsberg
Senator, Privy Councillor, writer, founder of forest schools in Russia; I was born in Konigsberg (Prussia), which arrived in Russia with his father in 1758 April 2, 1752, which was adopted in the Russian service and was appointed inspector of typography at the University of Moscow. April 15, 1760 G. was determined in the gymnasium of the Moscow University. Repeatedly received awards for diligence and completion of the course, 30 July 1768, was produced by the students. His father wanted to make him a physician, so he began to listen to lectures on the medical faculty. But fate was pleased to put it on another field. Among academics, sent by imperial order for physical observation and topographical descriptions in Russia, arrived at the end of the summer of 1768 in Moscow, a young professor of Gmelin. Acquainted with the father accidentally G. and learn son Gmelin proposed last start number of students of his expedition. G. willingly accepted the offer made to him; but his father hesitated to entrust him a son little known and still so young Gmelin, who was then no more than 21 years. However, the urgent requests son and some friends convictions prompted his father to give his consent. March 5, 1769 he was transferred to the Academy of Sciences, on secondment in the Order Prof. Gmelin expedition. Upon receiving news of this G. I went from Moscow to Voronezh, where he spent the winter Gmelin. Since May 1769, he began his journey with the young professor, is tied to the young to his companion, whom until his death his, followed five years after, he was in the most friendly way. In 1769 they toured the southern part of the province of Voronezh, the Don land to the Azov Sea and through the Tsarina in October, arrived in Astrakhan, where we stayed for the winter. In the first year of travel in, it became clear already leaning toward studies of natural history, and especially in botany, which all had the opportunity to do more, because this science has been a favorite subject of Gmelin. Draw up a plan for further wanderings, with G. Gmelin and the entire expedition, at the onset of spring in 1770, he went by sea from Astrakhan to Persia. Arriving in Derbent, they traveled by land all the western and southern shores of the Caspian Sea with the surrounding Caucasus Mountains, wintered twice in Gilan and Enzelinskom port, and in the spring of 1772 returned again to Astrakhan with the remnants of the expedition, more than half of which is made the victim of Persian fevers and goryachek. 1772 lived with Mr. Gmelin in Astrakhan, resting and adjusting heavy wandering emaciated health, but doing so together with occasional trips to various nearby steppe. Went up the Volga in the summer to explore the steppe, Gmelin left in Astrakhan for the collection from the archives of the provincial office and the Kalmyk Expedition various information relating to the history of the Kalmyks. In 1773, G. went to Gmelin second trip to the Caspian Sea, to explore the eastern, or so-called Trukhmen, coast. Traveled all over this coast, they arrived in the autumn Astrabad Bay, and then headed back to the port Enzelinskomu in Persia. Here, under the instruction of the Academy, Mr. Gmelin has left for the winter in order to have it next year again traveled Gilan mountains and especially some, still not inspected in their place, describe them precisely, the collected seeds of rare plants, as well as up collection of animals, birds, insects and reptiles. also Gmelin himself at late autumn time went by land to Astrakhan, but before reaching the Russian border, was taken prisoner by Lezgins, where he ended his life by exhaustion and disease. Not knowing anything about the incident, G. in the spring of 1774 started the execution of his orders. After touring new places Gilan near the mountains of snow peaks in the accompanying only four Greben Cossack troops, he was doing there scientific observations, logs the notes on all the sights, assembled a large collection of natural history, and by the fall back again in Enzelinsky port. Here, only he sadly learned of the passing of Gmelin. On to send him packetboat G. I went to the sea half of October in Astrakhan, where he arrived November 10, 1774 Winter 1774-1775 gg. he lived in Astrakhan, tidying up his papers and collection. After receiving an order to return to the Academy of St. Petersburg with the rest of the expedition students G. went from Astrakhan in April and arrived in St. Petersburg in June 1775 On presentation of their Academy about his work report, together with the collected materials, he received the full expression of his approval for the diligence and hard work, and January 20, 1776 was promoted to the translators. The fruit of his travels were G. "Bemerkungen auf einer Reise durch die Persische Landschaft Ghilan", printed in the 4th volume of Gmelin travel. In 1776 director of the academy asked the Potemkin on the definition, in one of the southern provinces to a place where he could apply the acquired knowledge to them. On the proposal of Prince Potemkin Senate July 10, 1776, in the interpreters he made the first three boards, after which he was appointed in Astrakhan garden office director`s assistant; at the same Academy to name him as their correspondent. In October 1776 he went to Astrakhan to his new position, in which the spent 5 years doing experiments to improve winemaking, horticulture, sericulture, as well as on the breeding of useful foreign plants. By keeping a constant correspondence with the Academy, in 1779 he received a medal from her. In 1781, the captain of the 2nd rank of Count Voinovich was charged with finding the Caspian Sea a convenient place from which it would be possible to extend trade relations with the East and the Caspian region to attract trade with India, and for this purpose he was put in charge of a military squadron. G., on the recommendation of the Academy and with the approval of the Most High, was seconded to the Voinovich for conducting historical log of all the traveling and different physical observations. In July, the squadron went to sea, and, on examination, the western and eastern shores of the Caspian Sea, headed for Astrabad Bay, which was recognized as a point most types conform to the government. Because of this, Count Voinovich entered into negotiations with Astrabad Khan. Concluded a contract with him was sent by courier to St. Petersburg. But remained with the squadron Astrabad winter in the Gulf, pending further precepts, Earl G. Voinovich and in December became the victims of the treacherous violation of the Khan of the word. From the 10th of December in the village, 12 miles from the coast, they, along with several naval officers on the orders of the Khan were suddenly arrested and 10 days under strict guard, and then sent to the Khan`s residence in the city of Sari, 100 miles from Astrabad . While Khan, after the negotiations and personal explanations with captured, and sent them away with an apology, but the Count Voinovich realized that relying entirely on contracts with local khans not only completely safe, but even unsafe, but because, having come to the squadron, he immediately I sent to St. Petersburg report about the incident. Count Voinovich in July decided to leave Astrabad bay and left with a squadron in the sea to explore some more bays and islands; he arrived in September in Astrakhan, where he found his command to return to St. Petersburg. Together with Count Voinovich arrived in St. Petersburg at the end of 1782 and G. Keeping their travel history magazine, describing all the squadron visited places and different observations on the edge of Prince Potemkin presented at the discretion of the Empress. Subsequently it was published, under the title "Historical Magazine of the former fleet in the Caspian Sea, under the command of Count Voinovich" (Moscow, 1809). For works incurred, during the expedition, March 13, 1783 he was granted in the court counselor. In the spring of 1783 Prince Potemkin went to the Crimea, and, on the conquest of it, called in July to his appointment was with him, at which the Prince supposed to lay the description of newly acquired Crimean peninsula; but the disease then raging, and Potemkin in the Crimea this plague prevented. He returned to St. Petersburg in the same year. In March 1784 G. went back from St. Petersburg for Potemkin in his Belarusian village, and in May, on behalf of him, went to the Crimea to describe the entire region. Traveled Crimean mountains, steppe part of the peninsula and examined Taman Peninsula, G. finished by the autumn of his mission. By approving the state Taurian area, December 13, 1784, he was appointed advisor to the Chamber of the Criminal Court, and why he moved in March 1785 hosted by the then provincial capital Simferopol. In July 1785 D. went on vacation to Moscow, where soon after his arrival Potemkin received notice that he composed "The physical description area Tauride" (in 1788, translated into French, and in 1789 - in English and German) was lifted to the Empress, who ordered to be printed on your own account with all the luxury of printing, and the originator of this work is bestowed showered with diamonds snuffbox; at the same time it expressed the will of the Empress, to G. was and historical description of the region. To do in Moscow execution of this new order, G. Potemkin was soon summoned to St. Petersburg and on arrival there in December of 1785, continued the work he had begun. In October 1786 Potemkin again met in Crimea for different preparations for the upcoming arrival of the Empress. It was followed by G. which the prince ordered to withdraw one of the best villas near Balaklava, as well as the vineyard in Sudak valley. February 19, 1787, he was appointed director of the economy opened Taurian area. In May 1787, he arrived in Crimea Catherine. At the request of Potemkin, G. produced for the arrival of its historical description of the region, as well as an essay entitled "Geographic News, explaining the former state Taurian area" with three cards, and was presented to the Empress, at her arrival. During the presentation to their work June 1, 1787 G. was granted the Order of St. Vladimir 4-th degree and a diamond ring. Historical description of the Crimea not yet been released to the public, and "Geographic News" published in St. Petersburg in 1803. By leaving the Empress D., ex officio of its Director-saving, all intravascular traveled there again Russian villages and engaged in an institution in various places needed economic institutions and tools. February 18, 1788 he was appointed vice-governor of Taurian area and in this position was to 1796. February 19, 1788 was promoted to collegiate advisors. According to the recall in the same year Tauride governor VV Kahovsky the army under Ochakov, G. corrected its position in the course of 5 months prior to arrival in January 1789 the newly appointed Governor SS Zhegulina. January 1, 1794, he was awarded the Order of St. Vladimir 3rd degree. In 1794 he was commissioned to be the personal supervision of the Tauride salt production, the former to that time in charge of the governor. For this year`s increase in revenues of salt 7 February 1795 G. was granted to the state councilor. In 1796 he was elected an honorary member of the Academy of Sciences. December 19, 1796 was commanded was held at the General Prosecutor for the economic part. Imperial decree March 4, 1797 has been established at the Senate, under the conduct of a major-general prosecutor, a special expedition to manage the affairs of the state economy, foreign guardianship and agricultural economics, of which he was appointed and G. Since the opening of this institution were entrusted to G. the case on the part of the colonists, and then charged with drawing up various new provisions to improve Russia`s silk, wine, sheep, and other parts of the rural economy, as well as the rules of saving and cultivation of forests. In addition, he was commissioned to review all coming from different persons on the part of public sector projects. On the day of the coronation of Emperor Paul I, April 5, 1797, H. 250 serfs was granted. November 20, 1797 he was appointed First Deputy Minister of the Department of principalities, leaving him a member of the expedition of the state economy, foreign guardianship and rural economics. November 21, 1797 he was made a State Councillor. March 5, 1799 he was granted the Order of St. Anna 1-st degree. January 3, 1800, it was entrusted to fix the post of Minister of the specific department, on the occasion of dismissal for a year abroad, Count Rumyantsev. July 9, 1800 he was made a Privy Councillor. On accession to the throne of Emperor Alexander I, in 1801 he was appointed to the committee prisutstvovaniyu Device Novorossiysk province. As a result of complaints from Saratov colonists, in July 1802, G., by imperial order, was sent to Saratov to explore there the colonies and for the production of research on these complaints. During the 4 months he was engaged in the execution of this order. December 31, 1802, he was appointed president of the College of manufactories, dismissal from being present in a specific department, and February 4, 1803 - General Manager of the forest department, leaving in their posts. While in the forest management of the chapter, the activities carried out the requirements of the new statute on the establishment of the forest in the proper places schools for education of people with expertise in forestry; when it opened the first forest school in Tsarskoye Selo (1803) and Kozelsk (1805). July 18, 1803, he was appointed manager of the transformed state economy expedition. February 6, 1806 granted the Order of St. Vladimir 2 nd degree. October 30, 1808, he was appointed the chairman of the committee established to examine the affairs of the commission, which had been entrusted to the analysis and solution of disputes on the spot through the lands of the Crimean peninsula. Order it was finished it in 1810. As a result of which developed his stone disease G. petitioned to dismiss him from office, so that December 19, 1808 was appointed to the Senate prisutstvovaniyu to the government, in the 1st Department in order to continue on its long-term experience and knowledge, had supervision of the Department of the Interior Minister, on the part of the state economy, which was commanded, and composed in his superintendence 1st expedition of the Department of the Interior and the main board manufactories. January 27, 1809 G. was dismissed from the forest management department. In August 1809 he moved from the 1st to the Department prisutstvovaniyu in Part II of the 3rd Department of the Senate. In 1810 he was appointed a member of the committee to consider the state of woolen mills in the state, and raising funds to supply the army and navy felts; after 8 months the committee entrusted G. cases in the same 1810 got diamond marks the Order of St.. Anna 1-st degree. March 2, 1811 he was commanded to attend, still, in the 1st Department of the Governing Senate. In 1811, under the new education ministries, G. was dismissed from the superintendence of the expedition of the state economy and the main board manufactories; while expressing the Imperial rescript of his royal favor for the incurred during the 8 years of work and provided they keep the received content. At the end of 1819, he was appointed the chairman of the committee to deal with complaints brought by the Emperor of living in the Tauride province Tatars and all cases of all ministries related to that region; Order this committee was completed in 1821. G. from 1805 till his demise was a trustee of the St. Petersburg Evangelical Church of St. Anne. With the help of his efforts in 1807 the church building was fixed to the ground. Under his care of flourishing established at the church an institution for the education of poor orphans. G. also took an active part in the establishment of the Russian Bible Society. G. died in St. Petersburg October 9, 1821 Buried in the Volkov Lutheran cemetery. He left an autobiography, which was published shortly after his death in the book devoted to his biography. In honor of Gablitz Bieberstein named one of the genera Aizoideae plant family - Hablitzia; the only species of this genus - Hablitzia tamnoides Bieberst. found in the Caucasus.