Karl Ewald Konstantin Hering Hering
Date of Birth: 08/05/1834
Place of birth: Altgersdorf
He received medical education in 1853-1858 GG University of Leipzig (EG took a course at the Weber and GT Fechner), defended his doctoral thesis on zoology, at this time Goering appeared of particular interest to the general biological problems; then he worked as a practical physician and assistant in the clinic, under the direction of EG Weber has prepared a thesis on the binocular spatial perception to replace an assistant professor, in 1862 he - assistant professor of physiology at the University of Leipzig, since 1865 - a professor of medicine, physics and physiology at the Medical-Surgical Academy Joseph in Vienna, where together with Q . Breuer studied reflex change of respiration during stimulation of the vagus nerve ( "Selbststeuerung der Atmung"), which was one of the first experiments studying the feedback principle, so important for cybernetics emerged much later. They were studied communication changes in blood pressure levels and the degree of attention ( "Traube-Hering waves").
In 1870, Goering accepted an invitation to work in the University of Prague (here was the first rector of the German University in 1882), in 1895 he returned to Leipzig, where he became the successor of Karl Ludwig. Member of the German Academy of Sciences (1869), a foreign corresponding member of the Petersburg Academy of Sciences (1905).
Goering - a pioneer of experimental psychology of perception. For methodological installations guided by the subjective sensory experience (observation and description). Initially, on many issues shared position Helmholtz, but then it became a classic opponent, developing nativisticheskuyu theory.
Catching the phenomenon of constancy of perception, Goering experimentally established that chernyyugol the bright sun can reflect more light than white paper at dawn, and yet perceived the black, due to "peripheral factors," as opposed to "unconscious inferences" Helmholtz, such as the pupillary reflex , retinal adaptation to light, simultaneous contrast he actually described the lateral inhibition:. light stimulation leads not only to a particular chemical reaction on the corresponding portion of the retina, but also the opposite reaction at the neighboring sites.
Endows itself retina ability to spatial vision, in his view, the perception of depth in a disparity due to the fact that the neurons of the inner retina and external calibrated on the perception of different depth extent ( "Beitrage zur Physiologie", Lpz., 1861). Developed teoriyutsvetovogo view (1875), in which the color discrimination explains the process of dissimilation and assimilation, occurring in three types of retinal cells responsible for the perception of the three qualities (white, black, red, green, yellow and blue).
Opened optical illusion ( "star Goring") - when applied to this figure formed by straight lines intersecting at one point, on parallel lines, they are perceived crooked. Considered memory, following the views of KG Carus, not only as a psychic, but also as a function obscheorganicheskuyu (every stimulus leaves physiological trail that can be reproduced), which is manifested in the form of inheritance, instinct characterized as a kind of memory. Due to its phenomenological and nativisticheskim plants had a significant impact on K. Stumpf and Gestalt psychology in general.