Date of Birth: 02/02/1903
Place of birth: Leipzig
Dunker (Duncker) Carl (02/02/1903 Leipzig - 23/02/1940) - German-American psychologist. Educated at the University of Berlin and Clark University (1923-1928, Master, 1926; Ph.D., 1929). From 1930 he worked as an assistant at the Psychological Institute in Berlin, after moving to the United States - at Clark University. For methodological ideas was close Gestalt psychology. He started his psychological study motion analysis under the division of figure and ground. Known primarily for his studies of productive thinking. Opened the effect of "functional fixedness", which consists in the fact that some objects are used in a certain way it is difficult to start using another. In 1924, together with Karl Zener conducted studies of learning, leading to paradoxical results: mechanical repetition of problem solving tasks leads to a deterioration of results in solving new problems. Experimentally, to his students, whom he asked to talk aloud, he showed that awareness is gradual and graded. Problem solving process includes a series of sequential reformulation of the problems that occur as long as the wording is such that there is resolution funds. Thus, the solution of the problem consists of qualitatively distinct phases: the phase of finding principles ( "functional solution of the problem") and implementation phase (the "final solution").