Date of Birth: 07/01/1768
The construction of Joseph Bonaparte in Spain Kings
In 1807, Napoleon made perhaps the greatest military and political mistake of his career. He put in the "Spanish hornet`s nest" (Tulare), thereby sowing the seeds of its destruction. This for him was not so much about ensuring continental barrier, as the interests of his family. The opposite opinion is shared by Artola. According to him, Napoleon primarily wanted to see him dependent ally of Spain against England, but did not seek to displace the Bourbons. Only when they become unreliable candidates seem to him, he had the idea to establish their own family there.
Under the pretext of support for French forces in Portugal in December 1807, he first entered the army in Spain. After the failure of Charles IV and his son Ferdinand from the Spanish crown, Napoleon wrote May 11, 1808 to his brother Joseph, who two years earlier made the King of Naples, "You are the one to whom I intended this crown. Spain is not what the kingdom of Naples: there are 11 million people, more than 150 million in revenue, not counting the immeasurable revenues and possessions across America. "
June 6, 1808, Napoleon, with the participation of the Council of Castile special decree proclaimed his brother King of Spain. However, he ignored the sentiments of the common people, considered a minor local rebellion ruthlessly suppressed his viceroy in Spain, Murat, the revolt May 2, 1808. But to the surprise of the French, it was just the beginning. A few weeks later the country was formed hostile to the Spanish army, which consisted mainly of peasants and artisans under the human soldiers. More politically prudent Joseph was probably not sufficiently informed about what is happening, when took the bait of his brother. In Naples, he drew on his influential stakeholders in the land reforms the bourgeoisie; even the nobility did not stand there for Bourbon. In Spain, the situation was quite different.
Spanish reformist party that to achieve their goals was ready to cooperate with the French, wanted to create a broader base for its program through the convening of a Constituent Assembly. The meeting opened this meeting June 15, 1808 in Bayonne. Joseph could not have any influence on the constitution of the production. Consisting of 150 representatives had a meeting class character. It went quite quickly and quite messy. In order not to give a pretext for a general uprising, it was decided not to reform the ecclesiastical sphere, not to eliminate the privileges of the nobility and not to enter the Civil Code. The Catholic religion was recognized as the only valid in Spain. However, it should disappear spiritual, as well as the feudal courts. The new monarch did not have full sovereignty, as was related constant union with France. Taxes should be equally subject to all classes. provincial tax privileges were abolished; All officials and judges were appointed by the king. Judicial and executive powers were divided at all levels. On the general safety, personal freedom and respect for the Constitution had to take care of the Senate, which never came into the world, for that matter, and provided for the constitution of the Cortes. Bayonne constitution was not clear dictates of Napoleon, but a synthesis of his desires authoritarian form of government with the ideas of the Spanish Reformed party.
The attractiveness of the proposed reforms by the French from the beginning suffered from the presence of the parallel of the Spanish government, which has offered its own. Once in the various provinces started the open resistance to the French of foreign domination, September 25, 1808, the Central Junta was formed in Aranjuez. Ferdinand VII was declared the rightful king, and Bayonne Constitution and all the decrees of "interventionist" Joseph declared invalid. July 20, 1808 war was declared on behalf of King Ferdinand of France.
September 24, 1810 in unapproachable for the French troops Cadiz Cortes first met the rebel, which was most liberal and who developed the famous Cadiz constitution. Although the Cortes were elected by indirect election, they did not have the character of birth Bayonne meeting. However, in the preponderance of Cadiz had the traditional elite of large landowners, the higher bureaucracy and the clergy. Nevertheless, the Constitution was adopted there was destined to become the "Magna Carta of Spanish liberalism, a symbol of freedom and liberal constant point of reference for the XIX century." It proclaimed the principle of popular sovereignty; a constitutional monarch had a suspensive veto. On the church privileges infringed it even less than Bayonne. Although its content is not particularly different from the program of reforms of Joseph, being born of the spirit of the struggle against the French, she has earned the trust of more Spaniards.
According Artola, the majority of the population at the time of the French invasion supported absolute monarchy. The Liberals, who represented the ideas of the French Revolution, were in the minority. Resistance to foreign domination led to undesirable and dangerous alliance with supporters of the monarchist absolutism. Between the two parties there was a third: the party of reformers, which was ready to cooperate with the French. "Frenchified" hated revolution and saw her threat to the state. In their opinion, the unity of Spain could be saved only by cooperating with the French, as otherwise there is a danger of the country section invaders. However, they believed that with the help of Joseph will be able to again take up the tardy implementation of social and political reforms and to bring them to the end. His cooperation with the French, they also hoped to avoid civil war and to protect the Spanish authorities against the encroachments of the occupation regime. The core of the reform program was the abolition of feudal privileges, restriction of ecclesiastical jurisdiction to internal church affairs, the defense of the Spanish export industry against competition, reducing public debt and a reasonable tax policy instead fiscalism prevailed.
The most prominent representatives of the "Frenchified" in the government of Joseph were Secretary of State Mariano de Urquijo, the minister of war About & apos; Farrill and minister for colonies Azansa. All three previously held senior government posts. In essence, the Bayonne constitution was their brainchild. Finance Minister was a Spaniard of French origin, Count Cabarrus, banker, diplomat and a great expert in finance. But the government was as powerless as the king himself. Minister of the colonies had no access to the colonies, the Minister of War was no army and the Minister of Finance out of money.
Source: Spanish kings, ed. Bernekera VL .; "Phoenix", Rostov-on-Don, 1998.