Joy Pol Guilford
Date of Birth: 07/03/1897
Place of birth: Marquette
Citizenship: United States
Guilford (Guilford) Joey Paul (03/07/1897, Aurora, Nebraska -. 1976) - American psychologist. Educated at the University of Nebraska (1918-1924, BA, 1922; MA, 1924), Cornell University (1924-1926, Ph.D., 1927), and later - again in Nebraska (JD, 1952) and at the University of Southern California (doctor of sociology, 1962). From 1920 to 1924 he worked as an assistant lecturer at the University of Nebraska from 1924 to 1926 - at Cornell University from 1926 to 1927 he - professor of psychology at the University of Illinois, 1927 by 1928 he had - an assistant professor of psychology at the University of Kansas, from 1928 to 1940 - associate professor at the University of Nebraska, in parallel - the director of the Department of educational studies (1938-1940), from 1940 to 1967 - professor of psychology University of Southern California. He began his career by drawing up a questionnaire on the distinction between extroverts and introverts.
World known for his research, which he based on the use of tests and factor analysis, attempted to build a mathematical model of the creative person. This model is widely used in the future to determine the creative talents in American science and industry. As a result of his twenty-year research Guilford went to the construction of "a cubic structure of the model of intelligence," which was presented to the three dimensions: operations (cognition, memory, evaluation, divergent and convergent productivity), the content (graphic material, symbolic, semantic and behavioral), results (elements, classes, relationships, systems, types of transformations and draw conclusions). Together with the staff he was able to identify and provide diagnostic tools 98 out of 120 possible factors, formed by cells of the cube ( "Analysis of Intelligence", NY, 1971 (sovm. with Hoepfner R.)).
Of particular interest in his studies caused a methodology study of divergent thinking, which were focused on tasks that do not have strict algorithm solutions and solve different ways. In particular, it was created "Test South State University. California ", which defined such features as ease of divergent thinking, flexibility and accuracy. Guilford personality treated as a mere combination of certain individual-specific features. In accordance with the developed test "review of temperaments" that allows to diagnose: general activity, self-control, authoritativeness, sociability, emotional stability, objectivity, friendliness, kindness, personal relationships, masculinity ( "Fourteen dimensions of temperament", "Psychological Monogr.", 1956 70 (sovm. with Zimmerman WS)).
As a result of factor-analytical study, the first in the study of personality, came to adequacy highlight the following motivational factors: organismic needs (hunger, sex, need to move), the need for certain parameters of the environment (comfort, cleanliness), needs work-related ( ambition, persistence) requirements related to social status (freedom, honesty), social needs, common interests (the need for risk in entertainment) ( "Personality", NY, 1959). The first began to explore the features of communication of personal traits and motivational structures, in particular the interests of the subject ( "A factor analysis study of human interests", "Psychological Monogr.", 1954, 68 (et al.)).