Joseph Louis Gay-lussac

Picture of Joseph Louis Gay-lussac

Date of Birth: 06/12/1778

Age: 71

Place of birth: Saint-Leonard-de-Noblat

Citizenship: France


Joseph-Louis Gay-Lussac (Gay-Lussac, Joseph Louis) was born in Saint-Leonard. He graduated from the Ecole Polytechnique in Paris (1800), where he studied under K. Berthollet. He worked in the same place (in 1800-1802 years -. Berthollet assistant).

In 1805 - 1806 years. he traveled to Europe together with the famous German naturalist Alexander von Humboldt.

Since 1809 - professor of chemistry at the Ecole Polytechnique and physics at the Sorbonne.

Since 1832 - Professor of Chemistry at the Botanical Gardens in Paris.

Research work related to various fields of chemistry.

Regardless of George. Dalton discovered the law (1802), establishing quantitative relationships between the degree of expansion of the gases and the temperature at a constant pressure, and the law of volumetric relationships (1808), according to which obemygazov, reactive, relate to each other and to the volume of the gaseous reaction products like about prime numbers (Gay-Lussac`s law).

Set (1807), the direction of change of temperature during compression and expansion of gases (air), taking place without heat.

Investigating the hydrogen chloride and hydrogen cyanide, the first to show that the oxygen content is not mandatory criterion for determining substances like acids.

Established (1808 - 1813 gg.) Analogy between chlorine and iodine, hydrogen iodide prepared and iodic acid, iodine monochloride. Studied hydrogen fluoride.

Together with J. L. thenar allocated (1808) free of boron boric anhydride, and also developed (1808) methods for producing potassium and sodium hydroxides recovery. Investigated (1810). Peroxides their potassium, sodium, calcium, and barium.

Along with H. Davy has shown (1813-1814 gg.), That the iodine - the chemical element.

Identified (1815) the number of members of hydrogen cyanide and established an analogy between her, hydrogen halides and hydrogen sulfide.

I get out and explore (1815) "cyan" (in the modern sense - cyanogen), which was one of the prerequisites for the formation of the theory of complex radicals and the theory of substitution.

First built (1819) curves of solubility of salts in water temperature.

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Improved methods of volumetric analysis: hlorometriyu (1824), and alkali- acidimeter (1827), the definition of silver and chlorine deposition (1832).

Together with ME Chevreul took (1825) the patent for the manufacture of stearin candles, ushered in a new era in the history of lighting.

Invented (1827) tower to capture the nitrogen oxides in the industrial production of sulfuric acid (used these towers started with 1842).

Developed (1829) method for obtaining an industrial oxalic acid from sawdust.

Invented (1816) thermograph and mercurial siphon portable barometer.

Together with T. J. Peluso received (1833), by heating lactic acid lactide.

Foreign Honorary Member of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences (since 1829).