Josef Albers

Picture of Josef Albers

100 Artists of the XX century

American artist and art teacher ,originally from Germany. He studied the essence of color and its effect on the observer, he developed a theory of perception that has had a significant effect on the occurrence of op-art.

Albers was born in Bottrop, in an artisan family. From 1908 to 1913 he worked as a teacher in traditional school in the Ruhr area. In 25 years, he entered the Royal School of the Arts in Berlin, after passing her exam of the art teacher. From 1916 to 1919 he taught at Bottrop, and then went to Munich, where he studied under Franz von Stuck courses in drawing classes. Lithographs and woodcuts of that time were influenced by Expressionism and Cubism.

1920 : School " Bauhaus ". In 1920, Albers came to school " Bauhaus " in Weimar ; he was then 32 years old, and among students, he was the eldest. At first, Albers experimented with abstract Diafani (transparent images on the glass) . The material for them, he sought out in piles of construction debris. 1922 began with the first experiments in the glass workshop ;Albers in 1923 became an assistant Laszlo Moholy -Nagy, under whose influence his paintings on glass have changed : he used them only square glass panes, which are inflicted by a sandblast images of geometric shapes.

In 1925, Albers moved to Dessau and received professorship. In the same year he married Annie Fleishman, a student of the course of artistic weaving. In subsequent years, Albers worked his paintings on glass developed in them " thermometer -style " and created sketches of furniture, metal vessels, as well as glass products for everyday use. Once in 1928 Laszlo Mohol-Nagy and Walter Gropius left the " Bauhaus " because of heightened controversy within the school, Albers took over the courses. As the successor to the American designer Marcel Breuer he led the furniture workshop and in 1930 became Deputy Director (held the post of Director then Ludwig Mies van der Rohe) . Until the closing of the school by the Nazis in 1933, he did everything he brings to her work a spirit of experimentation.

1933 College " Black Mountain ". At the initiative of Philip Johnson (employee of the Museum of Modern Art) Albers wife received an invitation to work in the newly opened College then " Black Mountain " in Asheville, North Carolina. Over 16 years of teaching in the " Black Mountain " Albers brought up a lot of young artists. His pupils were Willem de Kooning, Robert Motherwell and Robert Raushenbers As a basic principle of their academic work Albers (received in 1939 an American citizen) has called " a visual statement of our reactions to life. "" Treble clef cycle " was created in Asheville, where Albers for the first time carried out a color variation unchanged form. In his numerous graphic works, he tried to understand the ambivalence of linear geometry. As the basic elements of line drawing of a curvature were driven out in his works right angles and squares. Since 1947, in his " Variations ", he analyzed the impact of color changes on the visual representation of the external forms. 1950 Yale University. Since 1950, Albers started working at the School of Art at Yale University, where he headed the department of architecture and design. In 1958 he retired ,but two years later he went on to lecture. At Yale University Albers completed his major work - a series of " Adoration of the square " (launched in 1950), which had a lot in common with the works of Russian Constructivist Kasimir Malevich. " Worship " represented the quintessence of color experiments AlBursa and clearly reflect the position of his theory of perception (eg, an illusionist impact of lines on the amount of space) , which had a great influence on the occurrence of such areas as the op- art " kinetic art ", " color field painting " and the "new abstraction ". On the basis of the unchanged a geometric mesh (representing the color planes lying one inside the other) relationship demonstrated Albers color impact on factors such as the position, environment, and the amount of light intensity. In total, it turned over a thousand variations of the same theme.1963: The main theoretical work. In 1961 the museum " Stedelijk " (Amsterdam) , the first exhibition of works by Al Bursa was organized. Two years later saw the light of his theoretical work "Interaction of Color " ("Interaction of Colours"), which summarized his achievements in the field of Fine Arts. In the seventies, Albers ,Honorary Doctor of fourteen different schools and academies, settled in Orange, Conn. A year later held a retrospective exhibition of his work at the Museum " Metropolitan " arts - Albers this honor first was awarded in his lifetime. In the last years of his life

Albers created monumental panels for public buildings. He developed a series of new variations " Worship square " on the basis of color homogeneity, which create the effect of light aerial haze. Six days after his 88th birthday Albers died in New Haven, Connecticut.

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