Jordg Berkeley

Picture of Jordg Berkeley

Date of Birth: 03/12/1685

Age: 67

Place of birth: Near Thomastown County Kilkenny

Citizenship: United Kingdom


Born near Thomastown (Kilkenny, Ireland) 12 March 1685. He studied at the College in Kilkenny, then at Trinity College in Dublin, where he taught later. In 1713 he moved to London and through the first philosophical writings - Experience a new theory of vision (An Essay Towards a New Theory of Vision, 1709), Treatise on the Principles of Human Knowledge (Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge, 1710) and Three conversation between Hylas and Philonous (Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous, 1713), as well as wit and charm has been recognized in the London light. He became a priest in 1710. He traveled to Europe in 1713-1721; in 1724 he was appointed Dean of Derry. Approximately in 1723, Berkeley set about trying to establish a college for Indians in Bermuda. Expecting positive decision on subsidies for this project (which never materialized), he was forced to stay in Newport, Rhode Island c 1728 to 1731, where he wrote the work Alsifron or Small philosopher (Alciphron; or, The Minute Philosopher, 1732 ). In 1734 Berkeley was appointed Bishop Kloynskim in Dublin, where he created his last significant work - Seyris or chain of philosophical thought and research (Siris: A Chain of Philosophical Reflexions and Inquiries, 1744). In 1752 he resigned from the Minister and his family moved to Oxford. Berkeley died in Oxford January 14, 1753.

The philosophy of Berkeley, which had strong religious overtones, was at the same time the expression of a new, rapidly replacing scholasticism spirit, born of the works of Descartes, Spinoza, Malebranche, Locke, and Newton. Berkeley tried to overcome the fashionable skepticism and atheism, and a doctrine in which would harmoniously combined new philosophy and spiritualism.

Convinced of the human capacity for knowledge, Berkeley, like Locke, stressed the importance of sense experience as a source of knowledge. However, in contrast to Locke, and materialism, he argued that all the qualities - not only secondary (eg color), but the primary (eg, stretch) that Locke is referred to the independent consciousness of material substance - are a product of sensibility; He also argued that the concept of matter as a "reality" that exists over and above primary and secondary qualities, can not be derived from experience. The main mistake of all philosophy, according to Berkeley, is false abstraction. For example, the false idea of ??a "material substance" Locke. To exist (ie be real), he concluded - is to be perceived or perceive. Sensual objects, or, as he called them Berkeley "ideas" could not be made inert senseless matter, they are the consequence of active substance incorporeal spirit; ideas can not exist in the "receiving no substance." Hence: the matter is the experience can not be represented and contradictory. However, the "matter as the term can be left to indicate the particular case of the organization of ideas. Prirodaest ordered sequence of ideas generated by the Universal Spirit, and the laws of nature are "the rules or methods by which the Spirit produces in us the idea of ??feeling".

In fact, there are only "spirits" which are of two kinds: it is finite minds and the World Mind (God). About spirits we do not have any ideas, because ideas are passive and inactive, and can not be caught up in them that acts. Spirit is not knowable directly in sense experience, but only through its manifestations. The spirit we have only a "concept", but such a thing, as opposed to the concept of matter is not controversial.

In the works of the late period, Berkeley longer emphasizes the importance of sensory experience. The third Dialogue, he extends the notion of perception to the concept of understanding, and in Seyrise already asserts that knowledge is understanding. Finally, leaving and understanding, Berkeley, he wrote about our complete dependence on the spiritual world in which we exist as finite beings.