John Shaw Billings
Date of Birth: 04/12/1838
Place of birth: Allensvill
Citizenship: United States
John Billings was born on April 12, 1838 in Allensville, Indiana (Allensville, Indiana). In 1857 he graduated from the University of Miami (Miami University) and in 1860 - Medical College of Ohio (Medical College of Ohio). He was a medical inspector of the Potomac Army (Army of the Potomac) during the American Civil War, and then headed the Military Library of Medicine in Washington, DC (Washington, DC), founded in 1836. On its basis later in 1956, the National Library of Medicine (National Library of Medicine) will be created. During the work of Billings as director of the library - and eto30 years 1865 to 1895 - under his command were created detailed catalogs, `Index Medicus`, a catalog of articles from scientific and medical journals, in 1879-m, and the general catalog of the library `Index Catalogue of the Surgeon General`s Office` in 1880.
For several years he was Professor of Hygiene at the University of Pennsylvania (University of Pennsylvania). Billings also credited with developing the original buildings in the Johns Hopkins Hospital (Johns Hopkins Hospital), which opened in 1889. One of them was later named in his honor. In 1892, Dr. Billings was made an honorary member of the Royal College of medical associations (Royal College of Surgeons) in Ireland (Ireland).
After leaving the military medical library association engaged in Billings New York libraries from which formed the New York Public Library. This Billings persuaded Andrew Carnegie (Andrew Carnegie), businessman, multimillionaire and philanthropist, to allocate funds for the construction of 65 branches throughout the library of New York and in 2509 libraries in towns and cities across North America (North America) and the UK (Britain). A young man named Harry Miller Lidenberg (Harry Miller Lydenberg), which Billings hired as a personal assistant and head of reference services, as a result become the new director of the New York Public Library from 1934 to 1941 and significantly expanded the collections gathered Billings.
Dr. Billings was a senior editor of collections of reports on the work of so-called `pyatidesyati` Committee, organized by scientists to study the problem of drinking and alcohol abuse in the late 19th and early 20th century. He also served as head of the US Census (USA) in 1880 and 1890, respectively, and frequently collaborated with Herman Hollerith (Herman Hollerith), engineer, inventor, and a statistician.
Billings died March 11, 1913 in New York, at the age of 74 years.