John Herschel

Picture of John Herschel

Date of Birth: 07/03/1792

Age: 79

Place of Birth: Slough (Buckinghamshire)

Citizenship: United Kingdom


Born on March 7, 1792 in Slough (Buckinghamshire). In 1813 he graduated from the University of Cambridge. Some time was engaged in mathematics and law, from 1816 began to help his father in the Observatory, and after the latter`s death in 1822 continued his astronomical observations.

The first work was dedicated Dzh.Gershelya double stars, which he found more than 3000, but the main theme of his research became the nebula: in his catalog of 2307. In 1834 Herschel traveled to South Africa to the Cape of Good Hope, where he established reflecting telescope with a focal length 6.1 m and a small refractor. Using them for four years studying the southern sky, he opened his 1202 double stars and 1,708 nebulae and star clusters. More studied Magellanic Clouds and the distribution of the southern star; watching Halley`s comet when it appears in 1835. He returned to England in 1838. The following 7 years devoted to the description of its African Studies, published in 1847 results of astronomical observations made at the Cape of Good Hope in 1834 -1838 (Results of Astronomical Observations Made During 1834- 1838 at the Sape of Good Hope). Among his other works - Essays on astronomy (Outlines of Astronomy, 1849), as well as the overall catalog of nebulae (General Catalogue of Nebulae, 1864) that contains information about 5079 nebulae and star clusters. Supplemented later Danish astronomer Y.Dreyerom and published under the name New General Catalogue of Nebulae and Star Clusters (New General Catalogue of Nebulae and Clusters of Stars, 1888), he became a canon and astronomers environment called abbreviated NGS.

Taking a photograph Herschel in 1819 found power of sodium hyposulphite dissolve silver salts. After 20 years, he suggested, regardless of U.Tolbota used to obtain images fotografichesih paper coated with photosensitive material. First introduced the terms "positive" photo and "negative".

Herschel was also engaged in pedagogical and literary activities, has created a kind of system of public education in the Cape Colony at Cape of Good Hope. In 1842 he was made an honorary rector of the University of Aberdeen. His preliminary considerations on the study of natural philosophy (Preliminary Discourse on the Study of Natural Philosophy, 1830) have been translated into French, German and Italian. In the last years of his life, Herschel wrote a popular book on physical geography and meteorology. Like Newton, he was director of the Mint (1850-1855). Herschel died in Collingwood 11 May 1871.