Date of Birth: 09/06/1766
Place of birth: Iglsfild
Citizenship: United Kingdom
John Dalton was born September 6, 1766 in a poor family in the northern English village Iglsfild. At thirteen, he graduated from the local school, and he became an assistant teacher.
In Kendal autumn 1781 he became a teacher of mathematics.
Research Dalton began in 1787 with the observation and experimental study of air. He was engaged in mathematics, using a rich library of the school. He began to develop new mathematical problems and solutions, and after that and wrote his first scientific work in this area. Four years later, he became director of the school. During this time he became friends with Dr. Charles Haton, editor of several journals of the Royal Military Academy. Dalton became one of the regular contributors of anthologies. For contribution to the development of mathematics and philosophy, he has won several top awards. In 1793 he moved to Manchester, where he teaches in the New College. He brought with him the manuscript of "Meteorological observations and studies. In addition to describing the barometer, thermometer, hygrometer and other instruments and apparatus, Dalton analyzed in it the processes of formation of clouds, evaporation, rainfall patterns, morning northerly winds and so on.
In 1794 Dalton became a member of the Literary and Philosophical Society. In 1800 he was elected Secretary-General, in May 1808 - Vice-President, and since 1817 until his death was president.
In the autumn of 1794 he made a presentation on color blindness. This particular defect of vision we call today colorblind.
In 1799, Dalton left New College and became the most expensive private tutor in Manchester. He taught at the rich families no more than two hours a day, and then studied science. His attention was attracted by gases and gas mixtures.
Dalton made several fundamental discoveries - the law of uniform expansion of gases when heated (1802), the law of multiple proportions (1803), the phenomenon of the polymer (on an example of ethylene and butylene).
September 6, 1803 Dalton in his lab book recorded the first table of atomic weights. He first mentioned the atomic theory in the report "On the absorption of gases with water and other liquids" delivered October 21, 1803 in Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society.
In December 1803 - May 1804`s, Dalton gave lectures on the relative atomic weights of the Royal Institution in London. Dalton developed the atomic theory in his book - "New System of Chemical Philosophy," published in 1808. In it, he stresses two things: all chemical reactions - the result of the connection or division of atoms, all the atoms of different elements have different weights.
In 1816, Dalton was elected a corresponding member of the Paris Academy of Sciences. In the next year - president of the Society in Manchester, and in 1818 the British government appointed him an expert in the scientific expedition of Sir John Ross, who personally handed over the appointment of a scientist.
But Dalton remained in England. He preferred the quiet work in the office, not wanting to throw away and waste precious time. Studies to determine the atomic weights continued.
In 1822 Dalton became chlenomKorolevskogo society. Shortly thereafter, he left for France.
In 1826, the British government scientist awarded gold order for his discoveries in the field of chemistry and physics, and especially for the creation of the atomic theory. Dalton was elected an honorary member of the Academy of Sciences in Berlin, the scientific community in Moscow, the Academy in Munich.
In France, to witness the recognition of the achievements of outstanding scientists of the world, the Paris Academy of Sciences elected its honorary board.
In 1832, Dalton was awarded the highest distinction at Oxford University. He was awarded the degree of Doctor of Law. Of the scientists of that time such an honor has been awarded only to Faraday.
In 1833 he was given a pension. The government`s decision was read at a meeting in the University of Cambridge.
Dalton, despite his advanced age, he continued to work hard and make presentations. However, with the advent of old age are increasingly overcame the disease became more difficult to work with. July 27, 1844 Dalton died.