John Craig Venter
Date of Birth: 10/14/1946
Birth Place: Salt Lake City
Citizenship: United States
Creator synthesis of a living organism?
Craig Venter, famous for his success in deciphering the human genome, and offer this service to all comers for money. In the scientific world reputed adventurer, however, that his breakthrough called supportive and even rave reviews from geneticists all over the world. He is now the recognized leader of the most radical and promising areas of modern genetics and a pioneer in the field of artificial life synthesis.
May 21, 2010 Venter announced the creation of their artificial cells.
Craig from a young age was different temperamental individualism, fond of water sports, a veteran of the Vietnam War. He received a bachelor`s degree in biochemistry in 1972, a doctorate in 1975 from the University of California at San Diego. Since 1984 he has been working at the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Working at the NIH, Craig has mastered the methods of identification of all mRNA present in the cell, and began to use this method to identify human brain genes. Short cDNA fragments discovered by this method became known as "tags identified sequences" (eng. Expressed sequence tags, EST).
Craig was president of Celera Genomics, engaged in parallel to the commercial version of the project "Human Genome". In this company in 1999, the method of shotgun (Eng. Shotgun sequencing technology). The aim of the project was the creation of genetic databases and their commercial use. But under pressure from Craig Venter was forced to reveal the genetic data and to include them in the Human Genome Project. In the end, Venter of Celera had to leave in early 2002.
Despite the difference in motivation and competition, Venter and his collaborator Francis Collins of the NIH together announced the drawing up of the human genome map in 2000 in the presence of US President Bill Clinton.
In 1992, Venter founded the Institute for Genomic Research (Eng. The Institute for Genomic Research (TIGR)). Currently, Craig - President of the Institute of Craig Venter (born J. Craig Venter Institute.), Affiliated with the Institute for Genomic Research.
Being always on the cutting edge of scientific and pseudo-scientific breakthroughs scandals, Craig is now trying to patent the first in the history of mankind method for the synthesis of a living organism, ie. N. Mycoplasma Laboratory (Eng.). This body, according to the creators, contains in its genome the smallest possible set of genes. In 2010 he introduced the world biosynthetic simplest organism capable of reproduction. The world`s first artificial organism (synthetic bacterium) was named Cynthia (Eng. Cynthia).
From a historical point of view, Craig - a follower of synthetic biology, the beginning of which are working on the creation of a homunculus, and then the synthesis kvazikletochnyh mesostructure with the middle of the XIX century to the 1930s. Thus, a number of names Haeckel, M. Traube, G. Quincke, P. Harting, A. Herrera today complements the name of Craig Venter.