Date of Birth: 07/10/1509
Place of birth: Noyon
John Calvin - the uncrowned leader of Protestant Europe
Calvin has repeatedly fought for their beliefs, all life was afraid of only one person - his father. I must say that dad Gerard, Syndic of the cathedral chapter house in Noyon (Picardy), always had time to watch his son. Probably the first time he really paid attention to it, when everything began to talk about the extraordinary abilities of Jean. Then my father decided that his son would do well to devote himself to the clergy - from the shy, withdrawn boy could get out a good priest. The seminary Calvin immediately became one of the first students, the teacher praised him for his concentration and diligence. But their classmates are not very much admired and for all manner of Calvin accuse gave him the ironic nickname `accusative padezh`.
When the seminary was over, the father suddenly changed his mind and sent his son to Paris to practice law. Calvin was not used to contradict him.
Paris looked like when a huge boiling cauldron. Everywhere only say that about Luther`s teachings. Pamphlets Luther secretly went from hand to hand. Calvin liking this atmosphere. He was even in the commentary to the treatise of Seneca `On krotkosti` boldly hinted at the faults and abuses of justice administration. But that all changed with the beginning of the so-called `fight against eretikami`.
Becoming the leader of the Protestant Church in Geneva, Calvin had the opportunity to apply in practice his theory of undeniable predisposition. This doctrine states that God has taken away people`s choices and pre-ordained those who go to heaven, and who - in hell. Change your role in this world, man can not. But people with their work and humility can prove that he is worthy of God`s favor. If its share fell ordeal, he should not despair - God thereby checks the force of his faith. Renowned historian Michelet noted that predestination Calvin moved many sinners in the category of martyrs. So, if in any European country needed public torture or planned any publicly penalty for edification, in Geneva, it has been willing to all people-martyr. He voluntarily went to the scaffold, singing psalms and weighing the prostrations to the Lord. Most of the first missionaries went to conquer the New World, professed Calvinism. Many followers of the faith of Calvin was in Scotland, England, France, Hungary, Poland. So Geneva acquired the status of the capital of the new religion, and John Calvin - the title of `Geneva papy`.
To see the great teacher, the city attracts thousands of pilgrims. Geneva`s population is divided into two parts: one listened with rapt attention to the Department of Calvin`s sermons, while others hated it fiercely. During its Geneva office, he banned all that brings to life even a little fun. Under the ban were amusements, theaters and folk festivals, games and dancing, it is surprising, but at the skating Calvin looked askance. It has banned any other clothes, except for the simple, almost monastic. Men could no longer have long hair, combed parted in the middle, and women - to create original hairstyles. Do not walk into a restaurant and toasts. It was forbidden to keep in touch with relatives abroad, banned painting, sculpture, versification, etc. All citizens were prescribed strict rules. During their performance monitored. Acted principle: `He who does not work, is not worthy of est`. Celebrate the people were forced to work, foreigners living in the city without cause, banished from Geneva.
The system of punishments was pretty tough. So, three tanners who have eaten three dozen pies, was sentenced to three days in jail. And one of the engraver, who in the phrase: `Our Father who art in heaven, hallowed name tvoe` - word` Who art in nebesah` put in commas, sentenced to be burned, because he allegedly questioned the existence of God. But especially cruel Calvin was to ideological enemies. Calvin was the only Protestant in Europe, who are elevated to the principle of severe persecution of heretics. Geneva trembled from repression ... A raging tyrant, whose opinion on the one hand there has been a tremendous force in the entire Protestant world, felt in the capital of his teaching on the state of siege.
Full Test and it was family life. In the middle of the XVI century, Calvin married the widow of his former parishioner Idetge Stohr der. Idetta quite consistent with his ideas about the ideal of feminine beauty. She was impoverished and had three sons from her first husband. She and Calvin gave birth to triplets, but each of them was going to die shortly after birth. Calvin took it as a sign from above. After several years of serious illness and died Idetta. Sometimes Calvin rolled to complete exhaustion. Doctors predicted his impending death. But after that, he lived for more than 10 years. Spite all.
Many were amazed where this frail, seriously ill with tuberculosis people drew their strength. He found comfort in work. And in the body of it, perhaps, it was impossible to find any healthy body: migraines, he suffered even from a young age, stomach pain, gallstones, rheumatism, colic, urinary bladder, gout, nerve spasms. Bitterly complaining, he wrote: `My life is like a continuous umiraniyu`.
And yet, when Calvin lay dying, the whole town was praying for his recovery. Thousands of people came to say goodbye to him. `When death looked into his window - he wrote one of his contemporaries, - together with the departed into the sunset the sun is gone and the brightest star of our tserkvi`. Even after the demise of the `great asket` ??remained true to himself.
According to his will, he was buried just - buried without any ceremony befitting, without inscriptions, and even a cross on the grave. Location burial Calvin soon forgotten, and only recently the majestic black stone marks the spot where, according to historians assumptions rests decayed body of the great reformer of Geneva.