John Atkinson John Atkinson Hobson
Date of Birth: 07/06/1858
Place of birth: Derby
Citizenship: United Kingdom
John Atkinson Hobson was born July 6, 1858 in Derby (Derby), in the family of a prosperous newspaper owner William Hobson (William Hobson) and Josephine Atkinson (Josephine Atkinson). The mathematician Ernest William Hobson (Ernest William Hobson) was his older brother.
John went to school Derby (Derby School) and Lincoln College, Oxford University (Lincoln College, Oxford), after which he taught classical and English literature in schools Favershema (Faversham) and Exeter (Exeter).
When in 1887 Hobson moved to London (London), England (England) was in a prolonged economic depression. While classical economics has not been able to explain the errors in economic cycles, London was flooded societies and clubs, discussing alternatives to the current situation. While living in London, Hobson became acquainted with the ideas of the Social-Democrats and Henry Hyndman Myers (Henry Mayers Hyndman), Christian Socialists and Henry George (Henry George). He became friendly with prominent members of the Fabian socialism, which is found at the London School of Economics (London School of Economics), and some of them he had known at Oxford. However, none of these groups was not convincing enough for Hobson. Hobson`s contribution to the economy, namely the theory of underconsumption, originated thanks to its cooperation with other well-known businessman and mountain climber Albert F. Mummery (Albert F. Mummery). For the first time derived Mummery and Hobson in the book 1889 `Physiology of Industry `(Physiology of Industry) concept of underconsumption was a sharp rebuke to the principle of thrift, used in classical economics and the law of Say (Say` s Law). However, self-confidence bordering on insolence with which the findings were written in the book, ruined the reputation of Hobson in professional economic circles, and he was subsequently expelled from the scientific community.
At the end of the 19th century came quite noticeable of his works, among them - `The problems of poverty` (Problems of Poverty, 1891), `The Evolution of Modern Capitalism `(Evolution of Modern Capitalism, 1894),` The problem of unemployment `(Problem of the Unemployed , 1896) and `John Ruskin: social reformer` (John Ruskin: social reformer, 1898). They kept Hobson made a famous criticism of the classical theory of rent. Shortly thereafter, Hobson became a correspondent for the newspaper `Manchester Guardian` in South Africa (South Africa). In vremyaego work on the lighting of the second Anglo-Boer War, Hobson began to form the idea that imperialism was the direct result of the expansion forces of modern capitalism. He considered that the mine owners, led by Cecil Rhodes (Cecil Rhodes), who wanted to gain control over the Transvaal (Transvaal), manipulated by the forces of the United Kingdom (UK), has drawn them into the fight against the Boers, so that they can maximize their profits by mining . His return to England was noted strong condemnation of the military conflict.
His publications in the next few years to explore the connection between imperialism and international conflict. Among these works - `The War in South Africa `(War in South Africa, 1900) and` Psychology jingoism `(Psychology of Jingoism, 1901). In his seminal work `Imperialism` (Imperialism, 1902) Hobson of the opinion that imperial expansion is due to the search for new markets and investment opportunities abroad. `` Because of Imperialism gained Hobson an international reputation and influenced the ideas of such famous thinkers as Lenin (Lenin), Trotsky (Trotsky) and Hannah Arendt (Hannah Arendt).
Hobson wrote for several journals before to publish his next major work, `Industrial System `(The Industrial System, 1909), in which he argued that unequal income distribution led through the over-and under-consumption, unemployment, and that the remedy is `eradicating izlishkov` by redistributing income through taxation and nationalization of the monopolies.
Hobson`s opposition to World War I led him into the ranks of the supporters of the Union of Democratic Control (Union of Democratic Control). He, however, was strongly opposed to the creation of the League of Nations (League of Nations). In 1919 Hobson joined the Independent Labour Party (Independent Labour Party) and soon began writing for socialist publications such as `New Leader`, `Socialist Review` and `New Statesman`. He was also a prominent critic of the Labour government in 1929.
In the last years of his life, Hobson published autobiography, Confessions of an Economic Heretic `` (Confessions of an Economic Heretic, 1938) and expressed the hope that the United States (USA) will join Britain in World War II.
He died on April 1, 1940, before the German planes attacked British airspace.