Date of Birth: 05/04/1733
Place of birth: Dax
Jean-Charles de Borda was born May 4, 1733 in the city of Dax (Dax) in the south-west of France (France). He studied at the famous college of Henry the Great (Henri IV) in La Fleche (La Fleche), on the basis of which subsequently opened the National Military School (Prytanee National Militaire). Initially, a graduate of the prestigious educational institution was going to do the math, but his parents insisted on a military career. He engaged in military construction, and then moved to the light cavalry. In 1756, 23-year-old Borda wrote `Report on the movement of projectiles` (Memoire sur le mouvement des projectiles), the result of his work as a military engineer. Thanks to `Report of the motion of projectiles` in the same year Borda became member of the French Academy of Sciences (l` Academie des Sciences). He was appointed adjutant to General de Mayebua (Jean-Baptiste Francois Desmarets, marquis de Maillebois) and has published several articles on hydraulics and fluid resistance.
In 1767 he entered the Borda actual naval service. In 1771 th he was on the frigate `La Flor` (La Flore), under the command of Rear-Admiral de Verdun de la Crenna (de Verdun de la Crenne). The ship went to the Caribbean (Caribbean) for the testing of new models of watches and marine chronometers on behalf of the Academy of Sciences. In 1774 and 1775 Borda took part in the expedition, explored the coast of Africa (Africa). Was promoted to lieutenant of the fleet, he was sent to the Canary Islands (Canary Islands) and was responsible for determining the exact position - while the majority of European countries, the longitude counted from the island of Ferro (Ferro or Isla del Meridiano). Between 1777 and 1778 Borda years already, Major-General, participated in the American War of Independence under the command of Count d`Estena (comte d`Estaing).
In 1778-m Borda has published two books. First - it is a scientific work with the space called `Journey committed by royal decree in 1771 and 1772, respectively, in different parts of Europe and America to test the utility of the different methods and tools for determining latitude and longitude` (Voyage fait par ordre du roi en 1771 et 1772, en diverses parties de l `Europe et de l` Amerique, pour verifier l `utilite de plusieurs methodes et instruments servant a de terminer la latitude et la longitude), written in collaboration with the military seaman de Verdun de la roll and marine geographer Alexander Gua Pingree (Alexandre Guy Pingre). The second - `Description and use of a repeater (or reflective) of the terms `(Description et usage du cercle a reflexion).
In 1781, Borda was put in charge of several ships of the French navy to accompany military units aimed at the island of Martinique (Martinique). A year later, he was captured by the British and soon after returned to France, where he resumed his work as a naval engineer, and worked to improve the pumping systems. He was appointed inspector of the French naval shipbuilding in 1784, and by a naval architect Jacques-Noel Sane (Jacques-Noel Sane) in 1786 introduced a massive program to resume construction of the French military Navy based on standard designs Sana`a.
However, astronomers Pierre Mechain (Pierre Mechain) and Jean-Baptiste Delambre (Jean-Baptiste Delambre) Borda worked on behalf of the Academy of Sciences on the definition of the length of the meridian arc and paid special attention to everything that is associated with physical experiences. Borda invented a special device for measuring the length of the pendulum. With the introduction of the metric system in France after the French Revolution, the scientists decided to try to divide the circumference of a quarter to 100 parts, instead of 90 as before, and since 1801 Borda worked on the tables of logarithms of trigonometric values. However, this innovation did not stick, quarter-circle is still up 90 degrees.
Moreover, Borda invented a voting system known as the method for estimating the Borda, and this system is still popular among the reformers of electoral systems around the world.
Jean-Charles de Borda died on February 19, 1799, at age 65, in Paris (Paris). His name among the great names of 72 French scientists have been inscribed on the Eiffel Tower (Tour Eiffel). Opened in 1997 the asteroid number 175726 is named Borda, as well as an observatory in his home town of Dax.