Date of Birth: 12/15/1802
Janos Bolyai was born in the Transylvanian city of Kolozsvar; today it Cluj-Napoca, Romania, and then the city belonged to the Austro-Hungarian Empire. His father, a well-known mathematician, Farkas Bolyai, at an early age taught his son the basics of mathematical knowledge.
In 1822 Janos ends Military Engineering College in Vienna, passing the seven-year course of 4 years. Already in college, so he became interested in the study of Euclid`s fifth postulate that his father anxiously advised Janos:
You`ve got to give it up as the most heinous perversion. It can take away from you all the time, health, mind, all the joys of life. This black chasm in the state, maybe a thousand absorb such giants as Newton ...
Father was right.
Janos did not heed the advice of his father. He soon comes to the conclusion that the fifth postulate nedokazuem and independent of the others. This meant that, replacing it with an alternative, it is possible to build a new geometry other than Euclidean. He joked in a letter to his father: "I have created a strange new world out of nothing!"
Around 1820-1823 Bolyai`s treatise ends with a description of the new geometry.
1823: Bolyai sent to military service, a second lieutenant in the military engineering corps. He gave the army 11 years, was regarded as an excellent officer and a very good dancer. Owned 9 languages ??including Chinese and Tibetan. I do not drink and did not smoke.
In 1832 his father published an essay and its annex - work son, was incorporated into the history of mathematics under the name Appendix (Appendix). Full name of work of Janos Bolyai: "An appendix containing the science of space, it is absolutely true, independent of the truth or falsity of the axioms of Euclid XI (which is never decided a priori can not be)."
"Appendix", as well as the work of Lobachevsky, was misunderstood and overlooked.
A year earlier (1831) Farkas Boyyaiposlal "appendix" to his longtime friend, the then "King of mathematicians" Gauss. After reading the essay, Gauss wrote to one of his friends: "This young geometer Bolyai - top class genius." As it turned out much later, Gauss himself secretly developed non-Euclidean geometry (since the early 1820s), but nothing on this subject and did not publish. Farkas Himself as Gauss said: "Rate this - is like to evaluate yourself. Because everything that is written to coincide with my own thoughts the last 30-35 years on this subject. "
The sad news is that it is surpassed, stunned the young Bolyai, has just produced a captain. His health deteriorated, spoiled character, and he soon retires (1833). Pensions he did not curry favor, lives on his father`s money.
1834: enter into a civil marriage with Rosalie Kibedi Orban. They had two children.
Bolyai tries to continue mathematical work begins and soon sends several works, very interesting in their ideas.
1848: Janos Bolyai acquainted with the work of Lobachevsky, who back in 1829, 3 years before Bolyai published similar ideas at work. Bolyai furious. He suspects that he was robbed of the best ideas that no Lobachevsky had never existed, and all this cunning tricks of Gauss. At the same time, he admires the skill and wit proof of some theorems.
In recent years Bolyai marred by severe mental disorder.
1852: Bolyai odds with Rosalia. Begins to several new studies, but none bring to completion. After his death, more than 20,000 sheets of unfinished mathematical manuscripts were found. However, the "Appendix" and was his only work published during his lifetime.
In his honor, he was named Bolyai crater on the Moon.