Date of Birth: 04/03/1866
Place of birth: Wellington (Cape Colony) | data_smerti | = 21.11.1942
Duke James Barry Myunnik born in Wellington (Cape Colony) April 3, 1866. He was educated at Victoria College in Stellenbosch and the University of Amsterdam. In 1895 he became a judge in the Orange Free State, participated in the Boer War of 1899-1902, in 1902 signed a peace treaty with the British in Vereeniging. In 1907-1910 was the highest official of the judiciary and the education minister of the Orange River Colony. The Duke was a member of the National Convention in 1909, developed the South African constitution.
In 1910, Duke became Minister of Justice in the first government of Union of South Africa, led by Louis Botha. In 1914 he created the National Party, and demanded full independence of South Africa. In the elections of 1924 the National Coalition and the Labor Party defeated the South African Party of Jan Smuts, and the Duke was replaced last as prime minister. In 1934, the Duke joined the National Party with Smuts Party, established by the United Party. The Duke stayed on as prime minister for five years. Among the main results of his 15-year leadership - the recognition of the Afrikaans one of the official languages ??of South Africa (1925), the establishment of its own national flag (in 1926), the recognition of South African independence within the British Commonwealth (1931) and the exclusion of Africans from the common lists izbirateleyv Cape ( 1936).
When in 1939 the United Kingdom and most of the members of the Commonwealth declared war on Germany, Herzog demanded that the Union of South Africa has retained its neutrality. After being defeated in the Assembly, he resigned. Prime Minister Smuts became, and the Union immediately declared war on Germany. Duke went on to call for a separate peace with the Germans. In 1940 he retired.
The Duke died in Pretoria on 21 November 1942.