Date of Birth: 11/19/1831
Place of birth: Orange
Citizenship: United States
James Garfield, born November 19, 1831 near Cleveland, Ohio, was second after William Henry Harrison president with the shortest term of office. However, it deserves attention not only because of the perfect on his attempt. Garfield essentially embodies an American ideal man, who made himself. Orphan Boy survived childhood, full of hardship, received school education with a Christian slant and started early to work on the farm first, then a cabin boy on a boat. Capable and inquisitive young man was able to enter the Western Institute of eclecticism (later Hayramkolledzh). Then he studied at the College of Williams in New England. In 26 years, he became the president of the Institute of eclecticism, which began in 1856 to head the department of ancient languages ??and literature. All my life Garfield was a deeply religious man. He publicly opposed the evolutionary theories of Darwin and made reports about the relationship of geography and religion.
Very early on he was drawn into politics. In the spring of 1859 Garfield selected in Ohio Senate. A brilliant speaker and an outspoken opponent of slavery, he became the leader of the Republicans soon. During the civil war led by a set of 42-th regiment of volunteers of Ohio, and then I took over and command them. In 1862 he was elected to the House of Representatives in Washington, DC, where he spoke of the military occupation of the South, the right to vote for the black population and a restrictive fiscal policy. Resolutely opposed to patronage and nepotism.
Since 1877 Garfield as a senator representing Ohio. Three years later took part in the Republican National Convention. He supported the nomination of John Sherman candidate for the presidency, while the resistant party members held a third term for Grant and offered as a mestizo candidate James Blaine. The split between the factions was so deep that none of the candidates receives the required majority. Garfield unexpectedly found himself in the list of candidates, and 36 rounds later, became a candidate for president. Unshakable opponent of the South Garfield said at the Party Congress that established "forever" in the Civil War the North was right, and the South is not right. At the same time, he called for the expansion of governance reforms. Garfield has received political support from President Hayes, who advised him later. One of his most important tasks Garfield seen to bring Republicans into a cohesive party in the election against the Democrats. To support this process, a candidate for the post of Vice President Chester Arthur was nominated, which corresponded to persistent representations of party members. Besides Garfield taken during the election campaign trip to Goodwill in New York to secure the support of the powerful mechanism of the party in New York.
Garfield won the election in November 1880, received 214 votes of the electoral college protiv155 cast for Democrat Winfield Scott, with his advantage in the popular vote was only 7368 votes. While the distribution of seats in the Senate was balanced, Republicans in the House of Representatives reached an absolute majority.
Garfield tried to make a choice of his ministers independently of the various factions within the party. The purpose of James Blaine Foreign Minister and the refusal to appoint an equally important position of human Camp influential New York Senator Roscoe Conkling Garfield alienated accustomed to power the New York faction. The struggle for the independence of the President during the replacement of posts in the government fueled the appointment of William Robertson High customs officer of the New York harbor. In protest Konkliig and Thomas Platt, also a senator of New York, gave up their seats in Congress. Garfield`s victory over protection system to strengthen the independent position of the president. However, the inner-party struggle for power is difficult and overshadowed his efforts to change the management and finance, as well as all major political issues. The new Minister-mail Thomas James tried to reveal the abuse of postal service, the Minister of Finance has started measures to reduce the public debt by issuing debt obligations of government, and the Minister of the Navy William Hunt sought to reorganize the Navy. Garfield himself was engaged in the improvement of educational opportunities for blacks. With the help of the union he was trying to soften the denial of economic and political rights and thereby contribute to balance the North and South.
None of these initiatives has been finished. July 2, 1881 Garfield, who, together with the Minister of Foreign Affairs and two of his sons was at the train station of Washington, PA, has been shot by Charles Guiteau. Guiteau explained his actions by saying: "I am a staunch party member and now President Arthur". September 19, 1881 President died as a result of his injuries.
His wife Lucretia Randolph, whom he had known since childhood, and whom he married in 1858, took care of him until his death. He left five children, two more died at a young age. His two sons later, when President Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson, held high government posts. It is difficult to say how developed Garfield presidency, if he had not killed a few months after his inauguration. Personal Lincoln`s secretary John Hay believed that Garfield came to the presidency with more and better training and greater intellectual capacity than any other president in half a century before.
In principle, it is pursuing the same policy objectives as Hayes, Garfield strengthened the president`s position, but at the same time sought to establish a constructive relationship between the legislative and executive branches.