Date of Birth: 09/20/1842
Place of birth: Kincardine-on-Forth
Citizenship: United Kingdom
James Dewar - Scottish chemist and physicist; He made many important discoveries, but is best known as the inventor of the Dewar.
Dewar was born in Kincardine-on-Forte (Kincardine-on-Forth); He was the youngest of six children. At age 15, James was orphaned. He studied the young man at the University of Edinburgh (University of Edinburgh) under Lord Pleyfeyra (Lord Playfair); he later became a regular assistant to his mentor.
In 1875 James Dewar was appointed professor of natural philosophy at Cambridge; later he was also able to gain membership in the Royal Institute and the nominal position of professor of chemistry.
In 1897 Dewar became the president of the Chemical Society, in 1902 - the president of the British Association for the Advancement of Science; In addition, in the period from 1893 till 1894 th James as part of the Royal Commission checked the water reserves in London. In parallel, Dewar was listed as part of the Committee on explosives; it was here that he and Frederick Augustus Abel (Frederick Augustus Abel) developed cordite, a smokeless alternative to gunpowder.
In 1867-m Dewar benzene she described several chemical formulas; by a curious coincidence, called `benzene Dyuara` at the moment is known formula that incorrectly describes the substance and has no relation to the most Dewar. In general, in their research Dewar managed to cover a number of different themes; he was interested in organic chemistry, the properties of hydrogen, high temperature chemistry and physics of the sun and the temperature of an electric spark, electrophoto- and chemical properties of the electric arc.
Most often, the Dewar name associated with his studies of liquefaction of so-called `ideal gazov` and experiments with a temperature close to absolute zero. He started experiments in this area James back in 1874. In 1885 he demonstrated the world`s first public experience of liquefied oxygen and air. Shortly thereafter, James built a machine that allows divert liquefied gases through special valves and use them to cool; after liquid oxygen has been used in a number of studies related to meteorites. After some time, Dewar was able to get a solid and oxygen. By 1891 th Dewar was able to receive liquid oxygen on an industrial scale; until the end of the year he was able to show that oxygen and ozone in liquid form significantly amenable to magnetic radiation. The 1892nd scientist thought of to use a special vacuum vessel with inner shell for storing liquefied gases - Dewar vessel, or, in fact, a thermos. That is, the invention may also be glorified James Dewar; it turned out to be incredibly effective in terms of maintaining fluid in a relatively long period - which, in turn, greatly facilitated the study of the various properties of these liquids. From a commercial point of view, Dewar, unfortunately, much profit it did not bring the invention - the patent he received after losing a court case `Thermos LLC`. The court found that it was James Dewar is the inventor of the device, but the lack of a formal patent ban prevented him `Thermos` use the invention for its own purposes.
In 1905, Dewar took up the study of the absorption properties of coal cooled; his results later played an important role in the development ato me physics. Dewar continued to experiment with the properties of various materials cooled - right up to the First World. The war has hit the science and start experimenting again after it no longer wished to Dewar.