Ivan Vushnegradskiy

Picture of Ivan Vushnegradskiy

Date of Birth: 12/20/1831

Age: 63

Place of birth: Vishny Volochek

Citizenship: Russia



From the clergy. Wife - Barbara Feodorovna, nee Dobrocheeva (first marriage was married NA Kholopov, widowed). The daughters - Sophia, Barbara, Natalia. Son - Alexander (1867-1925) - an industrialist and financier. Grandson - Ivan.


He studied in Tver Theological Seminary (1843-1845). He graduated from the Faculty of Physics and Mathematics of the Main Pedagogical Institute in St. Petersburg (1851; with a silver medal, for excellent power and success in examinations was promoted to senior teacher). Master of Mathematical Sciences (1854, defended his thesis at St. Petersburg University on the theme "On the motion of the material points of the system, determined by the total differential equations").

In 1860-1862 was abroad in preparation for a professorship, he studied mechanical engineering at the state industrial enterprises and higher technical educational institutions in Germany, France, Belgium and the UK, he attended lectures on the construction machines in the Higher Technical School in Karlsruhe.

The scientist and educator

Since 1851 - a teacher of mathematics in the 2 nd St. Petersburg Cadet Corps.

From 1854 - tutor in mathematics and applied mechanics at the Mikhailovsky Artillery School.

Since 1855 - the teacher Mikhailovsky Artillery Academy.

From 1859, at the same time, member of the Temporary Committee of Artillery.

In 1862-1887 - Professor of Mechanics of St. Petersburg Institute of Technology.

In 1865-1875 - professor of practical mechanics Mikhailovsky Artillery Academy.

In 1867-1878 - Mechanical Engineer Main Artillery Directorate.

In 1875-1880 - Director of the St. Petersburg Institute of Technology.

Since 1878, at the same time, an advisory member of the Artillery Committee.

In 1869 he was appointed member of the Committee on the device of the All-Russian Exhibition manufactory in St. Petersburg in 1870, during which time was chairman of the committee of experts in one of its departments ( "the fifth group of objects"). In 1873 - member of the international committee of experts of the Vienna World Exhibition, organized the Russian machine department of the exhibition. In 1876 he was sent to the exhibition of scientific subjects in London. In 1878 he served as vice president experts mashinnnomu and engineering at an exhibition in Paris. In 1879 he became the General Commissioner of the All-Russian Exhibition Industry and Arts in Moscow in 1882.

He played a major role in the creation of scientific fundamentals of machine design. Created by Russian scientific school of Mechanical Engineering Engineers. He introduced the teaching of the course of theoretical foundations of engineering, gave courses of Applied Mechanics, thermodynamics, elasticity, lifting machines, lathes, steam engines, and others. He introduced students to course and diploma design. The author guides "Elementary Mechanics", for many years considered the best in Russia in this area.

Outstanding design engineer. Among constructing his machines: automatic press for manufacturing prismatic powder, lifting machine, press material testing, mechanical loader loads (for the river port) and others participated in the construction of the Okhta powder factory, mechanical workshops Petersburg armory, ammunition, gunpowder and weapons factories.. In the paper "On regulators of direct action" (1877) presented a method for calculating the regulators of this type. To formulate the conditions of stability control systems (Vyshnegradsky criterion). For the first time they entered into the practice of the method of dividing the graphic control system parameters plane on sustainability and the quality of the research method of the transition process are the basis of modern control theory.

Mathematical ability Vyshnegradsky described in the memoirs Witte:

Vyshnegradsky was a great lover of computing - it do not feed bread - just give him a variety of arithmetic calculation. So he always himself doing all the arithmetic calculations and calculations on loans. In Vyshnegradsky all had a wonderful memory for numbers, and I remember when we had once talked about numbers, he told me that there is nothing he will not so easily remembers how figures. We took a book of logarithms, - he says to me: - Here, open the book and read it out loud, I hotite.- page logarithms, and then - he says - you close the book, and I`ll tell you all the numbers in the memory. And, indeed, we took the book of logarithms, I discovered the 1st page: Vyshnegradsky read it (there are at least 100, if not more digits), and then close the page told me to remember all the numbers (I was watching followed by the book), without making a single mistake.


Since 1869 - Member of the Board of the St. Petersburg water supply company. Since 1874 - member of the Board of the Rybinsk-Bologovsky railway. From 1875 - member of the Board of the Kiev-Brest railway. From 1878 - Vice-President, since 1881 - Chairman of the Company`s South-Western Railways. As a business leader, amassed a fortune.


In the 1880s, he became friendly with the conservative journalist MN Katkov (published in his newspaper "Moscow News" article on financial matters). At the suggestion of Katkov in 1884 became a member of the Council of Ministers of Education, participated in the development of conservative university statute in 1884, the author of the project of industrial education. In 1886 he was appointed a member of the State Council and the Finance Committee.

Minister of Finance

In January 1887 he was appointed manager of the Ministry of Finance, in 1888-1892 - the Minister of Finance. He was appointed at the initiative of Katkov, who won the dismissal of the liberal minister of NH Bunge and hoped that Vyshnegradsky drastically revise the policy of the Ministry in the direction of prodvoryanskoy financial policy. Additionally, Bunge could not solve the problem develop a balanced budget, which has become one of the main tasks of the new minister.

In 1890 he became an honorary citizen of Kazan.

By taking some measures to protect the interests of the nobility (for example, was carried out the conversion of mortgage bonds Society of mutual land-credit, with new mortgages sheets exempt from coupon tax), Vyshnegradsky, in general, continued his predecessor`s policies, aimed at combating the budget deficit and strengthening of the national currency. Pursuing protectionist policies has greatly increasing tamozhennnye duties, which manifested itself in particular in the Customs Tariff of 1891 increased the duty to 63% of imported goods and reduce to only 2%.

Considerable attention is paid to the creation of gold reserves of cash, which allowed his successor Witte carry out a monetary reform (enter "golden ruble"). He initiated an increase in indirect taxes: excise duty was increased potatory, put oil and match excise, additional excise duty with refined sugar, increased stamp duty (an increase in indirect taxation has been criticized by opponents as a Vyshnegradsky worsens the situation of the poor segments of the population). He played for the promotion of exports - in particular, had a decrease in grain tariffs; grain exported overseas, 10% discount has been established. Stimulirovalvyvoz not only surplus grain, but also part of the required reserves of the peasants, he is credited with the phrase "short of food, but take out." Crop failures in 1891 and 1892 caused a famine among the peasantry and hit export Vyshnegradsky policy.

He supervised repurchase the treasury of unprofitable railways taken control and finance (1889-1890) and tariff (1889) reform of the railway sector. Held conversion of public (external and internal) loan, which helped to reduce payments on the public debt, lowering interest, ordering government debt (while the public debt when it increased due to the new loans).

Energetic and enterprising finance minister, who came from the business environment, was an atypical figure for the Russian bureaucracy. In his memoirs Witte describes the history Vyshnegradsky charges of accepting a bribe of 500 thousand francs from Rothschild at the conclusion of the loan in Paris. However, the story was more complicated - Rothschild excluded from participation in a loan from bankers competing groups (State Committee), which had previously obtained the agreement Vyshnegradsky on their participation in profitable projects. Then Finance Minister actually asked Rothschild to pay him 500,000 francs, but the entire amount translated "offended" the bankers as a compensation for loss of profits. Witte recalled that Alexander III of, to learn about the details of conducted operations

On the one hand, I was very pleased that it turned out that the Minister of his people correct; but on the other hand, I made a completely correct observation that the reception which used the Vyshnegradsky - reception vse-taki extremely uncomfortable ... But the reception that it was peculiar nature Vyshnegradsky and was grafted to him his former activity, he had various affairs with various bankers in different societies - whose cases were not always quite correct. But all this happened when he was not the Minister of Finance, and all of this technique (the use Vyshnegradsky against State Committee group) and a belch of the techniques that in general there have been adopted and which Vyshnegradsky practiced himself in his former activities.

The last years of his life and death

In 1892 Vyshnegradsky for health reasons, resigned from his post as minister, he remains a member of the State Council. Buried in Isidorovskoy church of Alexander Nevsky Lavra in St. Petersburg.