Date of Birth: 04/10/1800
Born on 22 September (4 October) in 1800 in the beautiful ancient city in Ukraine in a family of poor nobles. The family of the future Decembrists settled in Vitebsk at the beginning of the XIX century. Father Gorbachevsky in 1812, the year he served on the staff of Barclay de Tolly and Kutuzov and future Decembrist at the age of 12 traveling on the roads of the war with his father. After the war, Gorbachev Sr. served in Vitebsk breech chamber. Future Decembrists first studied in the National School and then, from 1813, was raised in Vitebsk Provincial High School, from which he graduated in 1817. Studied Gorbachev as "excellent", which has been repeatedly mentioned in the Acts of inspections. Especially Gorbachevsky favorite subjects were history and mathematics.
Democratic views Gorbachevsky formed precisely in the years of study at the Vitebsk school. One of the professors at the gymnasium working Kirill Kanarovskaya-Sahovich, which required not only to free taught children from poor families, but to the attitude to them was no different from the treatment of children of the rich. In 1812, the teacher saved from looters Napoleonic gymnasium property, and after the war sought to expand primary education and in Vitebsk province. Received after the death of a small estate, Gorbachev refused it and gave land to peasants for free use. Dekabrist M.Bestuzhev Gorbachev spoke of this: "Surprisingly good and clean nature, a person of high moral power, in spite of the quiet character."
After studying Gorbachev was on military service in St. Petersburg, at the Training Regiment noble. In 1820 he was promoted to ensign. From Training Corps officer he was released and sent to military service in the South, in Novograd Volyn. He served in the Eighth Artillery Brigade in Novograd-Volyn in the rank of second lieutenant of artillery. In 1823 it was admitted to the "Society of United Slavs" and soon became one of the most active figures. Conducted revolutionary propaganda among the soldiers and officers. Gorbachev believed that the masses need to know about the purpose of the Decembrists. When combining the "Society of United Slavs" with "Southern Society" carried out the connection between the artillery group of the "Society of the United Slavs" and the leadership Vasilkovskoyupravy "Southern Society". At the time of the December uprising he had the rank of second lieutenant of artillery.
Gorbachev was a supporter of the destruction of the royal family and included himself among those targeted for assassination of Alexander I. In the days of the uprising of the Chernigov Regiment, led by SI Muravyov-Apostol, together with other officers tried to raise the neighboring military units. Rebellion devoted several chapters of "Notes" Gorbachevsky written in Siberia after its release on the settlement. "Notes" is the fulfillment of the promise Gorbachevsky given them SI Muravyov-Apostol in September 1825 that the one who will survive, necessarily write memoirs.
After the uprising of the Chernigov Regiment was condemned to eternal servitude, then, in 1826, the term was reduced to 20 years. In 1827, he arrived in Chita jail, in 1830 transferred to the Petrovsky plant. From 1839 he lived in exile.
In the "Notes" Gorbachev tells an interesting fact that soon after the uprising and arrest, he was imprisoned, first in St. Petersburg fortress, and then transferred to Kexholm, which was planted in the Pugachev Tower, which at that time still held prisoners to relatives Pugachev.
After the death of Nicholas I in 1855, almost all the remaining survivors Decembrists took advantage of the amnesty and left Siberia. Gorbachev was left alone to live out their days in the Petrovsky factory; his letters and "Notes" are filled with thoughts of the failed uprising.
Gorbachev was left alone until the end of life, but his correspondence with friends, it is clear that over the teased him regarding his children born out of wedlock. In a letter to the Decembrist DI Zavalishin Gorbachev, speaking of S.G.Volkonskom and M.Bestuzheve, expressed the opinion that "the family is selfishness tire."
Gorbachev remained true to his ideals to the end and refused to take advantage of the amnesty, which procured for him by his relatives in 1863, and which allowed him to move to Saint Petersburg to live under police surveillance. "To go to the unknown, to live with people who do not know, although they are considered to be family, I`ll do it!" - That`s a quote from his letters to friends. Also he refused the invitation of the widow dekabristaFonvizina ND Fonvizina settle in her estate near Moscow. Gorbachev was interested in everything new in the revolutionary movement, received illegal Gertsenovskie publication. Skeptical of the peasant reform of 1861, and laughed at her enthusiasm of his friend, the former chief of staff of the uprising at Senate Square Eugene Obolensky. He realized the half-reform and even predicted bloody peasant revolt.
I keep the fire in an oil lamp in the chapel, where his wife was buried Decembrist Nikita Muraviev Alexandrina Muraveva. Was conciliator Petrovsky Mining District. Correspondence with the Decembrists Nikolai and Mikhail Bestuzhev E. Obolensky, I.I.Puschinym, V.L.Davydovym, D.I.Zavalishinym, wives of the Decembrists and M.K.Yushnevskoy N.D.Fonvizinoy. Died Gorbachevsky 9 (21) January 1869 in Petrovsky Zavod Chita province; there and buried.
"Notes" were first published in 1882 in "Russian archive" PI Bartenev as "Notes from an unknown Society of United Slavs". Researchers questioned the authorship Gorbachevsky, but later by the comparative analysis on the basis of other documents Decembrists authorship was confirmed. In addition to "Letters from Siberia" M.S.Lunina, "Notes" Gorbachevsky are one of the most complete documentary evidence of the December uprising.
Portrait Gorbachevsky brush Decembrist Nicholas Bestuzhev period of the 1830s is a serious charming man with a mop of hair.
From the memoirs of VA Obrucheva other NGChernyshevsky about II Gorbachev in the settlement: "Ivan Ivanovich was then sixty-three years. He was a man, slightly above average height, with a large, somewhat grizzled head, coiffed and disheveled in the manner of the generals Aleksandrov days, but the fluffy mustache and sideburns. In appearance he would have been in place only in an atmosphere of corps commander. and he says he had an important elders, aristocratic, rich, pure Russian, without the slightest trace of hohlatskogo origin or Siberian skill. the same manor, always supportive, was with him and look. in all he was a gentleman, and especially in generosity. he could not give at all, when there was - when he was embarrassed, Noda pinch count, he could not. Under the lion`s exterior he was a good man and tender to weakness, exquisitely polite and delicate . at school, where he studied, the teachers were Jesuits, and I teased that there are still different to the seduction of people aimed tricks. read it carefully: "Petersburg Vedomosti" and "Revue des deaux Mondes", which he sent our diplomatic agent in Beijing Butzow. Favorite books, which he most frequently took, before going to bed, were lamartinovskie "Girondins", and French books he does is much preferred to Russian. But the French of his speech I ever heard. Hot sympathy for the personality of Ivan Ivanovich, a love inspired respect for him above all his extraordinary kindness, living, compassionate treatment of all, the absence of any self-care. His correct, sober look at things, he proved that did not want to return to Russia. "
In Vitebsk, in 1973 the name of the former Saratov Gorbachevsky street in Pervomaisky district was named. On the wall of the former Vitebsk provincial gymnasium plaque was installed as follows in 1979: "In this house (a former grammar school) from 1808 to 1817. He studied Decembrist Ivan Gorbachev. " Currently (November 2007) in the former gymnasium at the address. Krylov, d. 7 is the diocese of Vitebsk. Plaque Decembrist Gorbachev is not the pretext of restoration. In the building there are other signs, and in the church museum Vnuto building a portrait of Nicholas II. All attempts to find out the current location of a memorial plaque Decembrist Gorbachev and its further fate nor to no avail. Plaque Gorbachev thus joined the list of the disappeared historical sites of Vitebsk, which also includes - a monument to Hetman Bogdan Khmelnitsky on the same street.
According to the information given in the book "The Decembrists and Siberia", 1988, Petrovsk-Trans-Baikal in the house where he lived, II Gorbachev, placed City Library. Gorbachevsky and Museum of the Decembrists. In building a memorial plaque. A monument Gorbachev. Tomb Gorbachevsky - Petrovsk-Trans-Baikal.