Date of Birth: 04/22/1724
Place of birth: Konigsberg
in Konigsberg TO IT YOURSELF arrives sir ...
The great German philosopher was known as a pedant and hairsplitter, lived the life of a bachelor, and the rest of his loved good wine and beautiful women. The son of a saddler taught mankind the principles of moral perfection. At the Prussian court he was revered, but loved and disliked. After his death two weeks inconsolable city residents said farewell to his brilliant countryman, but less than six months - and the house was sold to a certain merchant under the cafe.
- Immanuel Kant can be considered the most mysterious and the most iconic personality Konigsberg - says the researcher of the Kaliningrad History and Art Museum Veronica Chernysheva. - Despite the fact that his whole life is connected just with this city and took in the sight of his countrymen, and the first version of the biography of the philosopher was written during his life, Kant`s name is still fanned incredible legends and myths. Great mockingbird always proud of his origins and Konigsberg did not even know that after the death of his treatises hardball will be subject to claims and disputes between East and West. In Europe, it assured that the basis for the works of Kant, Newton went to the opening. In Asia, there is still a view that the basis of the work of the scientist were the reasoning of Imam Ghazali and al-Arabi. Some people even claim that the end of his life in one of the variants of his own biography Kant inscribed in Arabic script: "In the name of God the Compassionate, the Merciful!" This is just a legend, but you will agree, a beautiful legend.
The author of the most famous legends of the former Soviet Union is considered to be Mikhail Bulgakov. Story Messer Voland, the first pages of "The Master and Margarita" Tell Berlioz and rootless about their conversation at breakfast with Professor Kant, it is more than convincing.
- Small episode of the novel, some mention of Immanuel, which is hot and young Ivan Bezrodnyi eager to hide Solovki again gave ground for serious studies and rumors - says Chernyshev. - But we have to refute Bulgakov. First, Kant never formulated five proofs of God`s existence. His works are systematized thought predecessors - philosophers of antiquity, and they are concentrated in only three postulates: the theological, ontological and cosmological. By bringing together their formulation, Kant actually criticized these views, for which he fell into a fierce grace church. Even after his death, someone from the theologians ascribe very much wanted another philosopher, the fourth, the proof of God`s existence - moral, formulated as "awareness of our duties as divine commandments." But Kant is not particularly afraid of being branded an atheist, often he told his students: "In Him is no evidence of the existence of the field of the mind has not been and can not be."
However, if you still agree to accept a system of coordinates Bulgakov`s novel, it is legitimate and a delicate historical nuance: Voland, of course, been in Konigsberg. In any other city in the world breakfast with Kant could not take place - the philosopher never leave the limits of their small homeland, for that while still alive was nicknamed "the Prussian recluse." So, for the sake of theological dispute with a man of genius, Satan came to him in Konigsberg.
Beer - food bad taste
- Life could hardly promise son a poor saddler great promise, if not for his unquenchable thirst for knowledge - continues the story of Veronica Chernysheva. - Early lost his mother and father, Kant eked out a miserable existence in his youth. Poverty persecuted the great thinker almost to death: he could only in his later years to afford to buy a small house. Having entered the University of Konigsberg, the young Kant was not able to finish it: for the same - Financial - reason. He earned a living than he could - from tutoring to games at billiards and cards. It was not unusual: to go into the city, the future honorary citizen of Konigsberg shoes borrowed from his friends at the alma mater.
It was felt that Kant was a great disciplinarian. But in his youth he was not mandatory and very freely interpreted the concept of "punctuality". By the scrupulous accuracy in all future thinker almost force trained by his friend - the English merchant Green. The Briton did not forgive the slightest tardiness Cantu and arranged on each occasion a variety of demarches and candid a beating. With age, the pedantic precision and accuracy become a habit. Citizens synchronize watches, seeing elderly Kant for a walk. He did not like slovenly dressed students, resolutely ignored toothless buddies. Punctuality, pedantry and adherence to the traditions of Kant`s way of life is so determined and peace of mind that reached the point of absurdity: for example, getting rid of the arrogant and hamovatogo servant Martin webbing caused the heart attack.
But Veronica Chernyshev says that becoming a benchmark of accuracy and even asceticism, Kant was able to save a desperate student enthusiasm Albertina - University of Konigsberg.
- He loved wine and beer despised - she said. - In one of his works of Kant gave a drink from malt and hops rather unflattering assessment: "Beer - food bad taste." For female beauty always treated with reverence. Being already a very old man, during receptions and gala dinners, he always asked one of the young beauties to sit down next to him on the right side. While all in Konigsberg knew philosopher blind in the left eye.
In spite of the admiration of the fair sex, Kant never been married. The reason that he could not decide to start a family, rather banal: poverty. Kant ironically on his bachelor existence, saying that when a woman was needed, he could not support it, but when the situation allowed a wife, a woman no longer need. But then he specified: however, nothing justifies celibacy.
His mistakes were brilliant ...
- Kant was never a dissident - says Veronica Chernysheva. - On the contrary, the first, still not very mature their works, from which old age he tried to deny the philosopher devoted to the Governor of Konigsberg, and Emperor Frederick II. However, Kant`s academic career progressed with great difficulty. Smart people are always annoying power ...
During the Seven Years` War, East Prussia became part of the Russian Empire. The newly citizen Elizabeth in March 1758 addressed to his Empress to provide him with the vacant position at a university department chair of logic and metaphysics. Before Empress petition did not make it. Considered the petition on the merits governor of East Prussia philosopher Nikolai Korf rejected by typically bureaucratic reasons: another contender for this position had more teaching experience, and decided that the question is not in favor of Kant. By the middle of the XVIII century to his talent he admired all over Europe. At the Prussian court philosopher and revered, but loved and disliked. Kant Requests for further regeneration of Albertine and his own prospects frankly tape.
According to the historian, Kant was a genius even in his mistakes.
- In physical geography lectures philosopher told his disciples that fish sturgeon lives in Russia, which is to sink to the bottom, swallows stones. A live near Orenburg little people with little tails. However, not all of its paradoxical statements were far from the truth. Take, for example, is: "In the distant Siberia lived Mohammedans, pagans and Mohammedans, Christians do not drink strong, but nowhere in the world are not made as drunkenness, as in the rest of its inhabitants of Siberia..."
Without knowing it, Immanuel Kant entered into correspondence with the controversy has not yet been born opponent - Vladimir Lenin. Shocking thesis of Lenin that the cook is able to govern the state, the Prussian recluse anticipated caustic aphorism: "And who among themselves statesmen can comprehend the true art of cooks?"
Hans and Ivana, kinship is not remembering
With fame came to Kant and all the attendant costs. Even during the life of the thinker throughout Europe began to emerge adventurers who call themselves his children. Languid beauty of high society in a hurry to notify the light, that were loved by the great philosopher. As a rule, such revelations were covered mercantile interests.
- Kant died in abundance, - says Veronica Chernysheva. - He left his three sisters and his brother in the state of 20 thousand guilders. The death of the philosopher caused great sadness in the whole town. Suffice it to say that the civil ceremony of parting with him lasted three days instead of the nearly two weeks. February 28 teacher coffin bore 28 best students of the Albertina. The city was engulfed in mourning: Kenigsberg lost the greatest of his son.
But residents of grief did not prevent he himself to discredit the memory of the Prussian Hermit. Less than six months after the "Critique of Practical Reason," the author`s death, as his house was sold to a certain merchant under the cafe. Weak voice perturbed Kant colleagues drowned in a sea of ??indifference. None of the relatives or friends of the rich philosopher did not even try to protest. After 90 years, the house was demolished. Cause? A very pragmatic: the new owners took place to shop millinery. In 1924, Europe was preparing to celebrate the 200th anniversary of the birth of the great philosopher. To "keep face", the mayor of Konigsberg pressure "Society of Friends of Kant`s" obliged merchants hang on the hat pavilion plaque. The inscription on the board differ despair and cynicism: "At this point, there was a house in which Immanuel Kant lived and taught from 1783 to 1804".
- In the same year kenigsberzhtsy remembered yet another place connected with the name of his brilliant countryman - says Veronica Chernysheva. - Director of the Historical Museum of Edward Andersen took the liberty to say that finally set the exact location of the house forester Vobzera - a friend of Immanuel Kant, the philosopher who often stayed. In this house it was written by the famous treatise "Observations on the sense of beauty and the sublime."
Vobzera Residence became a place of pilgrimage for tourists. But almost immediately there was a lot of opponents who are not too lazy to carefully examine countryside walking routes scientist and subjected to the approval of the main Konigsberg local historian doubts. House caused controversy exists to this day.
- Kant was very proud of their nationality, their city, and probably would be very surprised to learn that the main branch of his family tree is interrupted not in Germany, not in Prussia, and in Central Russia - more precisely, in the Soviet Union - has finished his story Veronica Chernysheva. - In the mid 30-ies of XX century was repressed only direct descendant of the brother of Immanuel Kant, who had the misfortune to be one of the leaders of "Uralmash".
You will be surprised, but Kant was a Russian citizen
Immanuel Kant - German philosopher and scientist, the founder of classical German idealism - was born on April 22, 1724 in Konigsberg (now Kaliningrad), died February 12, 1804 in the same place. The fourth child in a poor family saddler. I called in honor of Immanuel, in translation is a biblical name meaning "God with us." All my life I lived in Konigsberg. From January 1757 on July 1762 - Russian subject.
In 1745 he graduated from the University. For nine years he lived and worked as a tutor in aristocratic families, which gave facilities for training - at leisure - philosophical research. In 1755 he was named assistant professor of the University. The next 15 years, in anticipation of the professors, served in Koenigsberg palace library assistant librarian positions.
This period of Kant`s philosophical development is called "subcritical". Among the major works - "Universal Natural History and Theory of the Heavens" (1755), "The new lighting of the first principles of metaphysical knowledge" (1755), "Dreams of a visionary" (1766).
Since 1770 it made to count "critical" period in the works of Kant. This year, at age 46, he was appointed professor of logic and metaphysics University of Konigsberg, where an extensive cycle of disciplines taught until 1797 - the philosophical, mathematical, physical.
By this time it matured fundamentally important Kant`s recognition of the purpose of his work: "It has long been conceived a plan for how to handle the field of pure philosophy, consisted in solving three problems: 1) I can know (metaphysics); 2) what should I do? ? (morality), and 3) what I dare to hope (religion), and finally, for this was followed by the fourth task - that is man (anthropology lectures at which I read for more than twenty years)? ". During this period, Kant had written "Critique of Pure Reason" (1781), "Critique of Practical Reason" (1788), "Critique of Judgment" (1790) - the fundamental philosophical works, which brought the scientist a reputation as one of the foremost thinkers of the XVIII century and has had a huge impact the further development of world philosophy. But even far from the philosophy of the people is known for its famous phrase: "Two things fill the mind with ever new and increasing wonder and blessing, the more often, the longer I think about them - the starry heavens above me and the moral law within me."
"The law, who lives in us called conscience"
So Kant said
About the role of a unifying idea for the victory of good
"... The highest moral good can not be achieved solely through individual pursuit of his own moral perfection, but requires bringing people together in a single whole for the same purpose, ie systems thinking people, and which thanks to the unity which is good and can only be realized ... "
On Freedom of Speech
"... A citizen of the state, and, moreover, with the permission of the sovereign, should have the right to openly express their opinions about what the orders of the Emperor seemed to him unfair to society ... Freedom of the written word is the only palladium rights of the people ..."
About War and Peace
"It must be recognized that the greatest disaster tormenting civilized peoples, are the consequences of the war, namely, the consequences of not only taking place now or has occurred as relentless and even continuously increasing preparations for the future. In it spent all the forces of the state, all the fruits of their culture, which could It would be used for the further spread of the latter; freedom applied in many places very painful blows, and maternal solicitude of the state of the individual member states are inexorably severe in requirements, which are also justified by the external security interests. "
"... The eternal world (the ultimate goal of the international law) is, of course, an impossible idea. But the political principles aimed at is to make such [international] Communication, which would serve as a constant approximation to a state of perpetual peace, it is quite feasible. .. "
About the necessity of relating faith and morality
"If I accept the faith as a principle without regard to morality ... that such a belief is not part of the religion."
On the reform of education
"... The ability of judgment is a distinctive feature of the so-called wit, and the lack of it can not make up any school, because the school can give even the limited intellect, as if to drum into him, as many rules borrowed from the other, but the ability to properly use them should be inherent in even the student, and if not this natural gift, then no rules that would be prescribed by him for this purpose, does not guarantee its erroneous application of their ... Lack of judgment is, in fact, what is called stupidity, and against this lack of medication is not. "
About the role of the unconscious in the works
"... On a large map of the soul, so to speak, covered only a few items - this may excite our surprise in front of our own being; for if some higher power said: Let there be light !, it without the slightest promoting our hand in front of our eyes would be opened as if half the world (for example, if we take the writer with all that he has in his mind). "
Kant`s categorical imperative
"... Act so that you always belonged to mankind - and in his face, and in the face of any other well -. As an end and never have belonged only to him as a means."