Imam Ghazi Muhammad
Ghazi Muhammad 1829-1832
He was one of the most courageous and adventurous mountain leaders, to act against Russia in the late 1820s and early 1830s.
October 17, 1832, was killed during the assault by Russian troops Gimry village. With the capture of the village Baron Rosen, was locked in a tower with 15 most approximate, among whom was the future Imam Shamil, trying to break with the battle, but was killed. The survivors were two defenders of the tower, among whom was the future Imam Shamil.
In the middle of the XIV century in the Central Asian city of Bukhara one Sufi thinker Mohammed Naqshbandi Mohammed Bah al-Din al-Naqshbandi) founded a new teaching will play an important role in the history of not only Central Asia, but also the entire Muslim world. Upon the death of this thinker`s doctrine, called Naqshbandiyya (scientists call "Muridism" in Russian historiography), spread from Central Asia to India, and then through the Middle East at the end of the XVII century and got to the Caucasus. Such a long time on the way to spread the doctrine can be explained by way of transmitting spiritual knowledge in the Sufi environment: from one stage of understanding the knowledge to the next stage (tarrikat) and from a mentor - murshid, to student mureed.
Proponents nakshbandiyzma believed that the Muslim community (ummah) got lost on the path of righteousness, and departed from the commandments of the Prophet Muhammad. Compliance with Shari`ah, and the avoidance of unlawful innovations (bida) is one way to get people to live righteously. But it is the opinion of the new preachers was not enough. Sharia should regulate the whole of social life, including the rulers of the board should also be carried out in accordance with sharia. After all, it is that the ummah lost its righteous way to blame first and foremost of those in power, steeped in sin. Obedience subjects ends where rulers do not follow the rules of Sharia. The conclusion from this doctrine followed is truly paradoxical. Once the terms of the majority of unrighteous rulers, the true Muslim can not be subordinate to them, and should try to be a free man and should not have to pay taxes, and the money directed to the aid of the faithful fighters for the purity of the Muslim faith.
Penetration nakshbandiyzma the Caucasus began in the late 10-ies of the XIX century, thanks to Sheikh Ismail of Kurdistan. He first called for an internal jihad and managed to get a few devoted disciples. Among his later followers turned Yaragskogo Mohammed (Mohammed al Yaraghi) played the role of the first universally recognized spiritual leader of Caucasus. It was his "easy" hand selected all rebel imams Dagestan.
It should be noted that by the beginning of the 30-ies of the XIX century, in St. Petersburg, not without reason, considered the conquest of the Caucasus matter almost complete. Long despotism Yermolov, Russian successes in the wars with Persia and Ottoman Turkey instilled in the hearts of Mountain Peoples of quivering terror. How was it possible to resist such a strong and powerful enemy? And more surprising is submitted against the background of the general appearance of the first decadent mood - indomitable Imam of Dagestan, who was able to commit to unite almost all mountaineers to war with Russia. Let`s try to find the reasons for this paradoxical phenomenon.
First and foremost the tsarist government tried to instill the loyalty of the local rulers. From the treasury allocated specific amounts for cash payments to support the rule of the Russian emperor`s new power brought with it the destruction of the traditional way of life of mountain peoples. The fragile economy of the Caucasus has been undermined. On subordinated to pacify society lay new burdens and taxable labor service. One construction of roads and bridges in the mountains was worth much. Needless to say that the new government did not enjoy newfound love among citizens. In addition, in 1830 it turned out to be unlucky for the Highlanders. First, a strong earthquake, and then a plague claimed many innocent lives. In this situation, the teaching nakshbandiyzma started up in the Caucasus, strong roots. After all, it indicated the "true" cause of all the ills fallen upon heads of devout Muslims and showed an easy way out of the situation - "hit the infidels, to the glory of God!"
But not all leaders Caucasian muridism Getting support gazzavat against clearly stronger enemy. So Muhammad al-Yaraghi said: "What a setting Sharia and re-embarked on the right path, Muslims will gain virtue and strength needed for jihad and his release. And until the time comes it is time to turn the weapon against the infidels or until kto-to of the most powerful rulers of the East Russian did not win the glory of the Koran, mountain peoples are not forbidden to obey the Russian and even provide them with hospitality. "
First steps. 1829-1830 year.
The situation changed radically when, in early 1829 came to Shamkhalate for Shariah sermons at the invitation of Mehdi-Shamkhal native village Gimry Ghazi Mohammed Ibn Ismail al-Al-Dzhimravi Dagistani (Kazi-Mulla and Gazi-Magomed +1 in Russian historiography). Having received from shamhalapolnuyu leeway Gazi Magomed gathered his companions and began to bypass the village of aul calling "sinners get on the right path, to guide the lost and crush criminal heads of villages." At the end of 1829 with the support of Mohammed al-Gazi-Magomed Yaraghi elected the first Imam of Dagestan. In the early 1830s, the new imam moved into Arakan, where he destroyed the house of his former master Said. Then Gazi-Magomed went to Gumbet and Andi where his journey has turned into some kind of triumphal procession. And it is here in Nagorno Dagestan surrounded by many supporters of Imam called on the audience to go to Moscow, where he said that he heard the ringing of chains that are losers guyarov.
I do not know whether this effect was expecting Mehdi-Shamkhal or not? Maybe the governor decided to play a little intrigue and the use of Shariah sermons in order to strengthen his power? If things were so, then the Mehdi-Shamkhal clearly miscalculated. Gene War was released from the bottle and began to pour the first blood.
Under the slogans of the struggle against the infidels and their puppets Gazi-Magomed assembled significant forces from a number of upland "free" societies, and February 4, 1830 moved the capital Hunhaz accidents. Murids attempted assault, but were defeated. Due to internal differences of the murids during the battle moved to hunhaztsev side, she started to panic and disorderly retreat among the attackers. A close associate of Gazi-Magomed Shamil was locked in one of the houses where lasted until the evening and was able to walk away from the village unnoticed !!!
The construction of a military road in Dagestan
(Lithography VF Timm)
March 1830 raid on Chartaly, first organized raids mountaineers.
Naturally, this state of affairs did not suit the winner of the Ottomans and Persians steward Caucasus Ivan Paskevich. Having dealt with the external enemies of the Russian decided to do away with one stroke and begin to riot in the Dagestani communities. To this end, in March 1830, Paskevich ordered to conduct a military operation in Chartalahe (the company has passed victoriously from 8 to 15 numbers). But this time smashing blow of the Russian army passed the goal, but only further alienated the new government almost all Caucasian society.
After the raid, the local community appealed to the Dagestani imam for help. Gazi Magomed against the waves of growing discontent began to pursue a successful policy of propaganda and for the three spring months has managed to multiply the number of its supporters. At the end of May 1830 several groups of mountaineers predvodimyh indomitable imam descended into the Alazani Valley and entered into open clashes with the Russian military forces.
May 1830. Failure RF Rosen.
Naturally, Paskevich not take long this time. In the same month, toward Gimry- ancestral aul Gazi Magomed popped column of 6,000 bayonets with 23 guns and mortars 6 under the command of Major-General Roman Fedorovich Rosen +2. Reaching the 3 Hindala Rosen made a serious mistake. He thought, for some reason, their strength is not enough, from the assault on the village Gimry refused and was limited only to seize the cattle from the locals. Rosen hoped this measure hindhaltsev force to surrender and give Imam. This half-measure, of course, did not lead to the desired result. The fighting quieted down for a while, then to flare up with even greater force. Gazi Magomed again brilliantly took advantage of the respite forced to increase the number of its supporters. Russian command, this time to take all possible measures immediately. Gazi Magomed tried to bring to the negotiations, to bribe, to take captive alive and kill almost simultaneously. All this confusion is only exacerbated a difficult situation.
Prior to that time to stand aside, Sheikh Mohammed al-yaranga announces Russian jihad. This event has attracted new supporters to the movement of the Gazi Magomed. In addition, for its part rebellious Imam undertook propaganda trip on Chechnya.
In November 1830 Russia`s attention riveted another uprising erupted in other parts of the vast empire. At this time, the kingdom of Poland rebelled.
In winter, the coming season cessation of hostilities.
April 7, 1831 Gazi Magomed battered the unsuccessful raid R. Rosen nevertheless decided to secure its rear and located with his troops in Agach-Calais (Chumkesent). At this time, the selected position allows mountaineers to secure Hindal and conduct systematic and successful submission Shamkhalate.
April 1831 Russian attack on the strengthening of the mountaineers.
19 April 1831. the commander of Russian forces in Dagestan Bekovich Cherkassy gathered considerable strength and tried to knock the imam from his position. The battle ensued in sel.Atly-Boyun ended in defeat for the Russian forces. Bekovich had to hastily retreat to the kafir-Kumykov and Gazi-Magomed acquired as a result of winning a huge impact on the entire North Caucasus.
Immediately rectify this Russian could not, as in connection with the events of the Polish part of the Caucasian Corps urgently began to shift to a new theater of war.
May 10 leaves the Tiflis Paskevich and also serving in the Polish kingdom. Instead, he leaves himself General Emanuel command of the Caucasian line and Pankrat`eva General in the South Caucasus. Russian troops were ordered to refrain from offensive operations.
Gazi Magomed, sensing the weakness of the enemy, decides to seize full combat initiative. May 16th imam moves to a new position at the Alti-Buyun. General Taube tried to May 20 to prevent the relocation of the main forces of the mountaineers, but he could do nothing and was forced to withdraw and fully expose the left flank of the Caucasian line. On aid Taube was sent a detachment Kahanova. All subsequent hostilities began to resemble a child`s game of cat and mouse. Russian tried unsuccessfully to catch the Gazi Magomed and impose decisive battle. Imam as the chase went and appeared to his jigits in the most unexpected places, showing the entire Caucasus helplessness of the Russian army.
June-July 1831 military action in Targu. The defeat of Emanuel.
At the beginning of June 1831 Gazi Magomed and his close associate Abdullah al-Ashilti lured squad Kahanova and using a false maneuver led away for a Russian by Alti-Buyun, Taraul to Agach-Calais. Then the imam, being able to take advantage of the speed, pulled away from his pursuers and took possession of the center Shamkhalate - aul Tarki, and then came under the walls of the Russian fortress Stormy. When 4 days later Kahane arrived in time to rescue the besieged Imam left. Fortress was saved, although most shamhalskih villages remained in the hands of the imam. Kahane was forced to stay in Shamkhalate to eliminate the remnants of the insurgency.
June 26th Imam sent a small detachment on Kizlyar and himself with the main forces suffered a military action on Kumyk plane. Here in Gazi Magomed joined Abdallah al-Ashat with considerable detachment of Chechen and Kumyk. Soon murids besieged fortress suddenly.
Only July 10 the commander of the Caucasian line of General Emanuel managed sakkumulirovat sufficient number of troops, and the siege of a sudden. This time, he decided to chase Emannuel to trace the elusive imam. 13 of stretching Russian column in dense forest near Aktas Avcom underwent a surprise attack, and was defeated. Of the 2,500 Russian prisoners of war and lost in killed about 400. In addition, the Chechens were able to grab a gun and one of the 10 that were available at Emanuel.
This first great victory over the Gazi Magomed regular Russian troops responded echoed across virtually the entire range of the Caucasus and, until that time, the doubters tribes moving to the side of the Imam. A Ingush forces blocked the main communication along the Georgian Military Highway. the imam himself holds the largest military operation. He goes to the south and within 8 days trying to capture Derbent.
September 1831 uprising in the Kai Tak Airport and Tabasaran.
September 8th Imam constant pursuer - Kahane siege of the city withdrew. Gazi Magomed took refuge in the mountains of Kai Tak Airport and Tabasaran, where he organized an enhanced defense against the advancing Russian troops.
September 16 in Shamakhi Pankratiev and arrived a month trying to peacefully subdue the Mountaineers. Negotiation and persuasion have not worked. In the end - all Russian October 16 came to the mountains and spent two battle and destroyed 20 villages. October 23 Kai Tak Airport and Tabasaran surrendered to the winners, but the Sharia law in these areas have been preserved.
October 20 in Tbilisi comes new chief ruler of Georgia and the Caucasus Grigory Baron Rosen, for a long time served under Paskevich, but not in the Caucasus.
Rosen produces new policy behavior of Russia in the Caucasus. First of all, he decided as soon as possible to end the rebel imam, to restore peace in the Caucasus and soothe irritation mountaineers.
The end of 1831. The defeat of the Gazi Magomed at Agach-Calais.
In early November Pankratiev and replaced Emanuel Velyaminov tried hamstring entrenched in Salatau Gazi Magomed. But the Imam was able to break out and carry out a devastating raid on Kizlyar left without cover. As a result of the raid 134 people (mostly civilians) were killed and 45 wounded. Highlanders burned thirty houses and 3 churches and took with them as trophies 168 people (mostly women).
In early December, the imam along with a detachment of 6000 men occupied a fortified position in Agach-Calais and decided to lure the Russian army here. December 6 Pankratiev Highlanders attacked the position, but was repulsed. The second attempt undertaken by 13 December was more successful. Almost all of the defenders of the village were killed, but the Imam himself and a few mountaineers escaped.
22 December Russian troops back into winter quarters with full confidence that with the uprising in Dagestan over.
1832 general offensive Special Caucasian Corps to Chechnya and Dagestan. The death of the Imam.
The first months of 1832 took place in relative peace. However, in late March to recover from the wounds Gazi Magomed, quite unexpectedly for Russian command reassembles groups highlanders and raided the Russian fortress of Nazran and Grozny.
June 1st Imam spent his last major operation. He captured the fortified position at Yol Sus Articles of Association, far from Erpili. During the next two days, Russian, under the command of Colonel von Kluge Klugenau drove the Highlanders from his position.
With the end of July, after learning of the impending general offensive of the Caucasian Corps, Gazi Magomed change their tactics from that moment Imam virtually cease active operations and trying to negotiate with the Russian. He promised his loyalty to the Caucasus governor, and even talking about the possibility of levying taxes on controlled tribes. It should be noted that the former generals, unlike the present, did not betray the army and brought it started to end. At the talks with no one went to the imam. Postpone Russian offensive failed.
In late July, the imam who failed in the negotiation process, he tried once again to disrupt the Russian offensive. Groups of mountaineers began to disturb Russian employed in construction in Chartalahe new Lezgin line. However, Rosen did not change its decision, and July 24, 1832 began a general offensive on the Caucasian Corps Chechnya, Ichkeria and Dagestan. Two columns, one number at 15-20 thousand. Infantry under the command of Rosen, the other running Sonya swept away almost everything in its path. Local populations are the most severe forces the resistance. Especially hot battle took place in the forests of Goyty (27 and 30 August), the capture Gremenchuka (4 September). Ghazi Mohammed was present at these battles personally.
September 10 Gazi Magomed failing to resist the onslaught of superior enemy strengthened in the area of ??generic village Gimry. In late September, Mohammed Ghazi renews attempt to engage in talks with Rosen and also to no avail.
By 10 October Russian occupied Salatau October 29 troops entered in Temir-Khan-Shura, and immediately, stormed at strengthening approaches in aul Gimry. In one of the huts nahoddilsya Imam and 50 of his closest associates. Almost all defending including Gazi Magomed died. In survived only 3 people (one of them - will be 3 Imam Shamil in Dagestan).
With the death of Gazi Magomed, contrary to expectations Rosen Highlanders resistance has not stopped. A few days later he was proclaimed the new Imam of Dagestan Gamzat Bey.
Dates battles specified in the new style.
1 Gazi-Magomed was born around 1793 and was originally a hereditary representative of the Muslim clergy. His grandfather, Ismail was considered in the mountains a very clever man, and he brought his grandson. Gazi-Magomed studied the Koran in Karanai first, and then in Arakan, the famous preacher Said-Araks. It should be noted that Said-Araks has not adhered to strict rules of Sharia and preached peace with Russia. This circumstance was the fact that the teacher and the student disagreed, and then began to open enemies. From a young age the future Gazi-Magomed differed indomitable will and firmness of belief. And his famous eloquence enabled to instill in the hearts of men a fierce hatred for the Russian conquest.
2 Robert Rosen (in Russian Army Roman Fedorovich) should not be confused with his namesake Rosen Grigory.
3 Hindalskoe society or Koysubu - "free" Dagestani society where the ancestral village of Gazi-Magomed Gimry.