Details are contained in Ignatius Church History of Eusebius of Caesarea (IV). According to Eusebius, Ignatius was sent to Rome, where he suffered for Christ in 107 during the reign of Roman Emperor Trajan (98 - 117), being thrown to the lions in the arena.
The nickname, in one version of the tradition, was the fact that Jesus took Ignatius-child in his arms, what tells Matthew Ch. 18, verses 2 - 5; on the other hand, it means "divine spirit medium."
Known as the alleged author of seven extant letters, which he wrote during his travels in custody in Rome. Five of them were sent to the Christian communities of Ephesus, Magnesia, Tralles, Philadelphia and Smyrna, sent their representatives to welcome confessor, passing through their territory, and to receive his blessing. One of the messages addressed to Polycarp, bishop of Smyrna, and the seventh - to the Christian community of Rome.
On the life and work of Ignatius we know little. Ignatius was the first major Christian writer of non-Jewish and non-Jewish from the environment. It is believed that he was a Syrian - on the grounds that it is imperfect Greek letters. Based on the content of messages, can be regarded as his first post-apostolic author is not rooted in the Old Testament tradition. Eusebius of Caesarea reports (C. I. 111.22) that Ignatius was the second bishop of Antioch after Peter the Apostle and the successor Euodias; Theodoret also claims that he was the successor of the Apostle Peter. Some authors suggest that Euodia and Ignatius were both bishops in Antioch: Euodias was delivered to the Jews, and Ignatius - for Gentile Christians. St. John Chrysostom Ignatius calls "a paragon of virtue, yavivshim in his face all the advantages of the bishop."
Acts of martyrdom (interrogation protocols and sentence) St. Ignatius - recent origin (IV and V century). They were published in 1689 Ruinartom (Martirium Colbertinum) and Dresselem in 1857 (Martirium Vaticanum). They reported the date of the death of Ignatius - 20 December (year unknown). On this day (according to the Julian calendar) and is committed to his memory in the Eastern Church; The Western Church from 1969 commemorates his martyrdom on 17 October on the instructions of the Eastern martyrology (IV century) in his Syriac version.
Also, 29 January (according to the Julian calendar) is celebrated Prenesenie his relics : Ignatius relics were transferred from Rome to Antioch in 107 or 108. First, the power stayed in Predgradie, and in 438 moved to Antioch itself. On the capture of Antioch by the Persians preneseny in Rome in 540 or 637 in the Church of St. Clement.
Six letters addressed to the local church and one private - Polycarp of Smyrna, who collected and published them:
Message to Magnesians
Message to tralliytsam
Letter to the Philadelphians
Message to Smyrnaeans
Epistle to Polycarp
Epistle - a precious source of information about muzheapostolskoy era of the Church, about which we know very little.
The Christology of Ignatius caused controversy with his doketami, deny the material aspect of the Incarnation, on the one hand and Judaism on the other.
In close connection with the Christology of Ignatius is his ecclesiology: so long for our salvation require carnal, real historical Christ, and the salvation can only take place in a real, visible Church.
The key phrase in ecclesiology Ignatius - & # 949; & # 960; & # 953; & # 964; & # 959; & # 945; & # 965; & # 964; & # 959; - An expression that he uses as a technical term for the Eucharistic assembly, that is, the Church.
Speaking of the local church, he makes them participle of the verb & # 960; & # 945; & # 961; & # 959; & # 953; & # 954; & # 949; & # 969 ;, which means a temporary stay on foreign land.
The doctrine of the divine oikonomia (economy of salvation) is central to the theological concept of communication. Ignatius: God wanted to save mankind from the power of "the prince of this world". He prepared the salvation of mankind in Israel through the Old Testament prophets; their aspirations find fulfillment in Christ, our common Master; themselves prophets, being His disciples in the Spirit, awaited him as his Master (Magnus. 9.1-2).
Christological doctrine Ignatius different formulations of clarity. He had no doubt that Christ is both God and man, is born "from Mary and God," suffering, but are not subject to greater suffering (Eph 7.2.); timeless and invisible, became visible for our sake, and endures all (Pos. 3.2). Ignatius denies doketov heresy, denied the humanity of Christ and claimed that Egostradaniya and Sunday only apparent (Smyrna. 7). Guided by the teachings of the Apostle Paul, Ignatius synthesizes it with the theological views of the Apostle John.
St. Ignatius calls the Church a place of sacrifice. The concept of the Eucharist as a sacrifice offered by the Church, is already found in the Didache, probably familiar to Ignatius. Eucharist he calls vrachestvom immortality, not only protects from death, but eternal life-giving in Jesus Christ (Eph. 2.20). It is the body of the victim for our sins, the Savior Jesus Christ, whom the Father in his love back from the dead (Smyrna. 7.1).
Ignatius first used the word "catholic" (Catholic) Church to refer to the aggregate of believers, "Where is the bishop, there shall be a people, but where Jesus Christ is, there is the Catholic Church (Smyrna 8.2.) (" Universal "is translated into Slavic languages ??in Greek "catholic", and on the west - "Catholic", just as the Greek is translated into Slavic languages ??- Thomas and the western - Thomas, hence - Thomism).
Ignatius with an exceptional persistence approves regulations on monarchical episcopate: "I exhort you, try to do all of the same mind of God, as a bishop presiding in place of God, the elders take the place of the Cathedral of the Apostles, and the deacons, the sweetest to me, entrusted with the service of Jesus Christ" (Magnus. 6.1).
Compare complaints contained various messages, leads to the conclusion that Ignatius with special veneration refers to the Roman Church. The expression caught the attention of scientists. A.Garnak seen in this expression is simply grateful recognition of the great generosity of the Roman Christians. However, this expression is found in the address twice, and in the second case contains an undoubted reference to the authority of the church. Ignatius uses it once again - in a message to Magnesians - and there it certainly applies to church authority. As for the word (***), according to modern scholars, it means here "the fullness of the supernatural love that Jesus Christ has lit in us by His love