Date of Birth: 1935
Place of birth: Jilin Province
Wang Hongwen was born in January 1935 in a village near the city of Changchun, Jilin Province in Manchuria. The exact date and year of his birth is unknown. In those years, Japan occupied Manchuria was turned into a puppet state of "Manchukuo" and Wang Hongwen family sympathized with the Communist Party of China (CPC), continue the fight against the Japanese occupation. As a child, Wang Hongwen joined parts of the People`s Liberation Army (PLA). In 1950, Wang Hongwen, who was only 15 years old, went to fight in Korea as part of the volunteer forces of Marshal Peng Dehuai, was the messenger of the field, he joined the CPC. After demobilization he worked at the 17th cotton mill in Shanghai and, as a man with military experience, was sent to serve in the factory security. At the beginning of the Cultural Revolution, as a junior security officer, interested in trade union activities and soon he showed great organizational and speaking skills.
At the head of the Cultural Revolution in Shanghai
In June 1966, after the first datsibao Cultural Revolution, Wang Hongwen, along with six of his friends wrote datsibao, in which he accused the leadership of the factory is that it "is the capitalist road." However, local party authorities did not agree with the criticism of "those in power taking the capitalist road" and sent to the 17 th textile factory is one of the "workers` detachments", created at the direction of Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping. Wang Hongwen`s actions were recognized as "counter-revolutionary". From the massacre of his intercession saved Jiang Qing. Soon, however, the working groups were disbanded, and Wang Hongwen Shanghai became the acknowledged leader of the Rebels. As directed by Jiang Qing, to help him in Shanghai was sent to the author of the first datsibao not Yuanjia. October 6 Wang Hongwen and his supporters formed the "headquarters of the revolutionary Rebels - workers of Shanghai" and called "focus attack on the Shanghai City Committee." In November 1966, Wang Hongwen companions lay on the railroad tracks at the station Antin in Shanghai suburb and was interrupted for 30 hours railway connection by requiring them to train for a trip to Beijing to Mao. When a requirement has been satisfied, Wang Hongwen arrived in Beijing, where he was received by members of the Cultural Revolution Group of the CPC Central Committee - Chen Boda, Jiang Qing and Zhang Chunqiao. After that, Wang Hongwen invited the Mao Zedong and Lin Biao, who promised to support him, and sent back to Shanghai. However, on November 26 Shanghai workers, dissatisfied with the chaos, arranged Rebels Wang Hongwen, created groups of "red guards" (chiveydui) and entered with them into confrontation. November 28 Shanghai was covered street battles, which killed and 91 people were injured. But the Rebels failed to suppress the forces of "red guards", whose number has reached 400,000 people. A month later, the Shanghai workers stopped work, leaving the city without electricity and water. Stood Shanghai port, stopped traffic, rail traffic stopped. January 4, 1967 to Wang Hongwen help urgently left Shanghai Zhang Chunqiao and Yao Wenyuan.
January 6 Wang Hongwen, Zhang Chunqiao and Yao Wenyuan to collect a million rally under the slogan of overthrowing the Shanghai City Committee of the CPC. During the rally, broadcast TV they declared bias of the first secretary of the city committee Cheng Pi County and mayor of Cao Ditsyu and called "polnostyurazgromit" City Party Committee. At the same time part of the PLA took custody of banks and government buildings, and the Rebels seized the radio and editorial publications. January 9 Rebels with the army stormed the support of the Shanghai Municipal Committee, which lasted five days. Despite the fact that on the side of the city committee were the military, led by the commander of the East Sea Fleet Tao Yuen, the power in the city passed into the hands of the Rebels. The seizure of power in Shanghai called the "January Revolution". February 5, 1967 at 14.00 was announced that the transfer of power in Shanghai in the hands of the Shanghai Commune. The widely circulated manifesto claimed that the Shanghai Commune elected on the same principles as the Paris Commune of 1871 and will continue its tradition. But on February 25, the Shanghai Commune, did not get the support of Mao Zedong has been replaced by the Shanghai Revolutionary Committee.
From Shanghai to Beijing
Wang Hongwen became a member and then vice chairman of the Shanghai Revolutionary Committee, then headed by him. For some time it seemed that his career is limited to the level of the province, but in April 1969, Wang Hongwen was elected to the Presidium of the IX Congress of the CPC as "the leader of the working of the new formation." At the Congress, he was elected member of the CPC Central Committee - Mao Zedong believed that the nomination of Wang Hongwen attract more young people the Cultural Revolution. In August 1970, the Lushan Plenum of the Central Committee, he first spoke out against Lin Biao and Chen Boda, than again strengthened its position. In 1971, he became secretary of the CPC Shanghai Committee, and in September 1972, Jiang Qing, Mao Zedong urged to send Wang Hongwen to work at the Central Committee of the CCP. In May 1973, Jiang Qing also made to Wang Hongwen participated in the work of the Political Bureau of CPC Central Committee (at the same time to work have also been admitted and Te Hua Guofeng). July 4 of that year, Wang Hongwen, together with Zhang Chunqiao have an audience with Mao Zedong and lashed out at Zhou Enlai. Mao Zedong in the conversation got on their side, but the organizational change was not followed. At the opening of the X Congress of the CPC August 24, 1973, Mao had Wang Hongwen`s highest honor, put him on his right hand, at the time, Zhou Enlai was put on the left. At the Congress, Wang Hongwen, he made a report "On changes in the Charter of the CCP." He confirmed the continuation of the course of the Cultural Revolution and cited a letter to Mao Zedong, Jiang Qing - "Every seven or eight years (! Approx) monsters and demons will creep into the world." August 28, 1973 at the X Congress of the CPC, he was elected one of the five Vice-Presidents of the CPC Central Committee, member of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee and the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee. He was a member of the Standing Committee of the National People`s Congress (NPC). Wang Hongwen was one of the founders and leaders of the People`s Militia "minbin", which is actually controlled the life of the country, in number not inferior to the army and not to claim odchinyalos army command. Minbiny in semi-military uniform patrolling the streets of towns and cities, followed the public order, checking routine food consumption in families and even styles hairstyles in hairdressing. They were considered a real support, not only of Mao Zedong, but "radical" as it was called by foreign observers, groups promoted the "Cultural Revolution" - Jiang Qing, Wang Hongwen, Yao Wenyuan and others.
In the role of Mao`s successor
In September 1973, during a meeting with French President Georges Pompidou, Mao Zedong suddenly started talking about Wang Hongwen. Mao pointed at him and said: "This is - Wang Hongwen, in all countries talk about it. During the Korean War he was in the Army of the Chinese People`s Volunteers, later - workers in Shanghai. In 1970, the Lushan Plenum of CPC Central Committee Wang Hongwen first exposed the intrigues Lin ... ".
Wang Hongwen was seen as a possible successor to Mao Zedong, but Wang Hongwen himself in these years was careful and did not play the second role in the party.
Many believed that the role of successor to Wang Hongwen generally impossible because of his age and lack of education, and that it is a decorative figure. In addition, it said that at home he behaves faulty. But Wang Hongwen had real authority as the Deputy Mao and the person capable of controlling militia "minbin".
December 28, 1973, Mao Zedong formally appointed Wang Hongwen his new successor. After July 1, 1974, Zhou Enlai was admitted to the hospital, Mao Zedong also instructed Wang Hongwen guide the daily work of the Party appointing him as opposed to Deng Xiaoping Deputy Premier of the State Council. The evening of December 17 of the same year, Jiang Qing gathered conclave of supporters, which was decided in secret from the Politburo to send Wang Hongwen to Mao, that he informed the President that Zhou Enlai and Deng Xiaoping, "embarked on the path of Lin Piao" and prepare its overthrow . Wang Hongwen to comply with this order, but Mao reprimanded him, ordered him to "forge unity of Comrade Xiaoping" and warned against an alliance with Jiang Qing.
In September 1975, Wang Hongwen visited Shanghai, said: "My concern is that the army is not in our hands. It is therefore necessary to create a headquarters for the leadership of the people`s militia, to merge it with the armament department of the Shanghai Party Committee. And this is not a formal question, and the problem of strategic importance. Shanghai militia created us with Zhang Chunqiao, and you have this thing I have to adjust. Currently, you have to be mentally prepared. When they set out to strike, and then it will be a test, and will show whether we are able to sustain their impact. "
In January 1976, after the death of Zhou Enlai, Wang Hongwen claimed his post of prime minister of the State Council, however, another group of the party leadership saw as a candidate of Deng Xiaoping. There is no accurate data, maintained or not desire Wang Hongwen his allies - is that candidates for the position were Zhou Enlai and Jiang Qing, and in particular, Zhang Chuntsyao. The bitter struggle between the factions over the resignation and prosecution of Deng Xiaoping, against which actively addressed Wang Hongwen, but the Premier of the State Council and First Deputy Chairman of the CPC Central Committee has been appointed a compromise candidate - Hua Guofeng.