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Herodotos

Picture of Herodotos

Date of Birth: 0484

Age: 59

Nationality: Greece

Background

In his youth, he participated in the uprising against Ligdamiya, the tyrant of Halicarnassus. After 450, he always left his hometown and lived in Athens for a long time, what was then the cultural center of the Greek world. There he publicly read part of his work, which included praise of Athens, that, according to the testimony of the ancients, earning him top honors in the 10 talents. In Athens, he met with Sophocles and was in close contact with the environment of Pericles. When in 444-443 years. BC. e. Athenians established in Southern Italy city Furies, G. went there and, apparently remained there until his death. At different periods of his life, he made a number of trips. In addition to Asia Minor and Greece, he traveled to the Black Sea coast, the country of the Scythians in the territory of present-day Ukraine, also advanced into the depths of the Persian kingdom, reaching Babylon, and possibly Susa.

He also visited Egypt, the Phoenician city on the Syrian coast, and Cyrene in Africa. From the west of the Mediterranean Basin countries, he was only in Sicily, Southern Italy willows (Croton, Metapontum). Dates and duration of these trips are controversial among scientists. The work, entitled History (Historiai) 9 books written on the Ionian dialect. The division of the book (and the titles of books by the names of the Muses) has a more recent origin, and often seems mechanical, as tears unified text passages. The main idea of ??the works of G. is the eternal antagonism between East and West. The turning point in this conflict began the Greco-Persian wars. To show its gradual rise, G. traces all the stages of the formation of the Persian kingdom. Persian conquest allow presentation of the history of nations as their conquest by the Persians. G. presents the story of Lydia, Media, Babylonia, conquered by Cyrus, the story of the conquest of Egypt by Cambyses, Darius describes the campaign against the Scythians. Ionian revolt, the first in a long series of clashes with the Persians, the Greeks, the opportunity to give Mr. delve into the history of Athens and Sparta, which finally allows him to go to the description of the Greco-Persian wars of Darius and Xerxes, the culminating phase of the conflict between the East and the Persian Greek world (the battle of marathon, Thermopylae, Salamis, and Plataea).

The composition of the whole work G. extremely complicated (basic narrative digressions and deviations in these excursions), for G. is not limited to political history, but, on the model of the Ionian logograph (mainly Hecataeus) leads an extensive geographical and ethnographic material, forming a small monograph in part of the product (description of Babylonia, Egypt, Scythia), and the author does not stop in front of a free introduction to his story novelistic tales and fables type. In creating his work H. was based on personal observation, living oral tradition and literary texts. He has not yet been developed by historical methodology, he did not know how to analyze sources, however, sought to create a possible objective picture of the past, resulted in different versions of the events described. More than once, he gave vent to his doubts, but in general he has no links to their own opinion.

Cicero is not without reason called the G. "father of history". In contrast Ionian logograph, G. limited time narrative about the life of two generations. In history, in addition to the actions of people, G. saw divine Providence, which determines the fate of nations and individuals, preventing the transition of certain frontiers ( "Envy of the Gods"). A significant role in the work of G. play signs and predictions. G. influenced Thucydides. His eagerly quoted later geographers, though often estimated it critically. Fiercely attacked all G. Ctesias and Plutarch. During attitsizma G. has been recognized as a model in the field of style (simplicity, expressiveness, epic solemnity) and became a writer for the school reading. In 1474 Lorenzo Valla made translation of D. into Latin with Greek manuscripts, brought in 1427 from Constantinople.