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Herman Vissman

Picture of Herman Vissman

Citizenship: Germany

Background

Expedition Leaders were assigned to have happened in the state Mouat-Yamvo Paul Pogge. His companion was the 27-year-old lieutenant Hermann Wilhelm von Wissmann, who had casual restaurant dating from Pogge did not even think about Africa and, of course, had no idea then that will be one of the most prominent researchers in the Congo Basin.

Pogge and Wissmann arrived in Luanda in January 1881. Soon they were in Malange and June were there to Kimbundu. From Kimbundu, they went to the north-east and north. Following mostly along the left bank Tshikapa, they followed the river to the place of its confluence with the Kasai. On the other side of Kasai opened the way to more completely unknown to Europeans area. Crossed the river, Pogge and Wissmann moved east across the divide between the Kasai and its right tributary Lulwa (Lulua). Descending into the valley Lulwa, the travelers arrived at the resettlement area bashilange people (Ben-Lulua), belonging to an ethnic group Baluba.

In December 1881 Pogge and Wissmann with a detachment bashilange made to the east and soon reached the lake Mukamba (Munkamba). To their dismay, it turned out to be a small karst lakes: Wissmann walked round it for five hours.

Continuing eastward, the expedition went to Luby river, and then to the larger river Lubilash. With joyful surprise, German researchers have found out that the river has another name - Sankuru, which clearly guessed "Sankorra" Cameron - "the subject of so many fairy tales, hypotheses and suppositions." Collected information they talked about what Lubilash formed by the confluence of the rivers and Lubiranzi Lvembe, the origins of which at one time saw Cameron.

Further eastward expansion has led travelers to the valley Lomami. In April 1882 the expedition left to Lualaba and crossed the river, came to Nyangve. Hence Pogge returned to the country bashilange and then went back to Angola, which got seriously ill. He died on 17 March 1884 in Luanda. Wissmann also moved from Nyangve usual expensive slave caravans to Tanganyika, and thence to the east coast, arriving in November 1882. In April of the following year he was made a report on the results of the expedition at the "African Society in Germany." A detailed description of his journey TransAfrica Wissmann gave in the book "Under the German flag across Africa from west to east", published in Berlin in 1889.

Expedition Pogge - Wissmann greatly expanded geographical knowledge of the southern part of the Congo Basin; It first opened to science the vast territory between the Kasai and Lomami.

Shortly after returning from his trip Wissmann TransAfrica began to plan a new expedition, whose purpose was to be a study of the Kasai. Wissmann called his project to the Belgian king. Leopold II was well aware of the value of the direct exploration of the waterway from the southern part of the Congo Basin to already be under the control "of the International Association" the middle reaches of the river. He enrolled Wissmann at the service of the association and at his disposal considerable funds.

In January 1884 the travelers landed in Luanda, and a month later arrived in Malange. Hence, the expedition made in July of the same year, crossed the valley of the Cuango and moved to the northeast. Having crossed the Kasai in approximately the same place as in 1881, Wissmann made a short excursion up the river valley located and opened her mouth above Tshikapa eight-meter waterfall, which he called the name of Pogge.

In November 1884 the expedition reached the residence of the leader in Calamba Mukenge Lulwa Valley. Nearby Luluaburg (Lulvabur) station was built by the village Mukenge. Satellites Wissmann took away a few radial routes: between the rivers and Lulwa Luby, Sankuru inflow and to the north, the rivers and Lulwa Sankuru.

At the end of May 1885 explorers sailed down the Lulwa and soon reached the confluence with the Kasai Lulwa. Kasai was free of thresholds, but it made it difficult to swim numerous shoals. Wissmann tried as much as possible to keep the right bank, so as not to miss the confluence Sankuru. The mouth of the largest right tributary of the Kasai was opened in mid-June. Continuing down the Kasai, travelers have found to their surprise, that the river, instead of to keep the north-west direction (so, obviously, would have to be if the Kasai was, as suggested by Stanley, Horse Hands), deviates more and more on west. In early July Wissmann flotilla passed the mouth of the Cuango, then FIPI, and finally came to the place of confluence of the Kasai in the Congo. In the middle of the same month, the travelers were already in Leopoldville.

Wissmann expedition was extremely important geographical results. Presentation of the identity of the Kasai and hands so ingrained that to meet the mouth Wissmann Hands was specially sent to the ship with food and other supplies. Now, however, it became clear that empties into the Congo Kasai called Kwa that Sankuru, Cuango and FIPI - its tributaries and therefore Kasai collects water throughout the south-western part of the Congo Basin.

Wissmann not only established the concept of the hydrographic system of the Kasai, and mapped the entire distance traveled, including middle and lower reaches of the Kasai Lulwa confluence to the mouth, as well as the lower reaches of Lulwa. It cartographically recorded position of the mouths of other major tributaries of the Kasai: Sankuru, Lwanga, Cuango, FIPI. Francois performed the first measurement of water flow in the Kasai. Description of this journey and its scientific results was a collaborative effort between the contents of voluminous Wissmann, Wolf, Francois and H. Muller "In the inner Africa", published in Leipzig in 1888.

Research Wissmann expedition were much complemented LyudvigomVolfom that soon after arriving in Leopoldville was appointed head of a new expedition, which had the aim of strengthening the positions "of the Independent State of the Congo" in the Kasai basin. At the end of 1885 the expedition on board the "Stanley" and "Al-Awan" climbed the Kasai and Lulwa Lvebo to the mouth and from there by land reached Luluaburga.

In January - March 1886 Wolf aboard the "An-Avan" climbed the Sankuru to the extreme navigation - waterfall, named after his name. German traveler also visited the lower reaches of the left tributary Sankuru - Luby, and on the way back opened and partially explored right tributary - Lubefu; the river and had a second name - Lomami, which is why Wolf took her Lomami Cameron.

Back on the Kasai, Wolf met in April 1886 with new arrivals to Central Africa Viessmann. They made a joint swimming Kasai Lulwa above the mouth and found that the tail water of navigable stretches for another hundred-odd kilometers and ends with a seven-meter waterfall, which was named Wissmann. After that, Wolf returned to Europe, and then took part in a German expedition to Togo, where he died in 1889. Wolf Research Report Sankuru and map of the river have been published in the "Message Petermann" (1888).

Wissmann while engaged in colonizing activities on the banks of Lulwa, made an unsuccessful attempt to explore the upper reaches of Lubilasha (Sankuru), later also passed by, close to the route of his first trip to Nyangve, then to Tanganyika, and turning south to Nyasa, came out in late all to the Indian ocean coast at Quelimane. This trip Wissmann described them in a little book, "My second crossing Equatorial Africa from the Congo to the Zambezi" (Frankfurt an der Oder, 1891), did not result in contrast to previous significant discoveries, but also contributed to the deepening of knowledge about the southern part of the Congo Basin , its nature and people.