Henry 4

Picture of Henry 4

Date of Birth: 11/11/1050

Age: 55

Citizenship: Italy

Henry IV. Regency

I managed to Henry III of, live longer, realize the great church reform, establishing at the same time the imperial power on a firmer footing, - an idle question. It is impossible to imagine a more unfavorable situation. Pope`s presence was happiness: he helped the Empress to cope with the first difficulties. However, the next in 1057, and he died, and Henry IV of, subsequently reigned from 1056 to 1106, was then a 6-year-old child.

The regency was in the hands of his mother Agnes, a woman of limited-resident depending on those whom she trusted. The most influential of these was Henry, Bishop of Augsburg, deserve such confidence. His position is the envy of others, and every appointment, every expression of the favor of the court created a government for one satisfied or poludovolnogo ten embittered this grace. All these intrigues and squabbles can not be described briefly. In Hungary, during the regency coup, in which Bela hostile Germans brother Andrew, whose son was engaged with the second daughter of the Empress, Sophia, seized power. More important was what was happening in Italy. After the death of Pope Victor`s brother the Duke of Lorraine was elected Cardinal Friedrich Gottfried under the name of Stephen IX. But he died a few months after it was elected Benedict X, resulting in a batch of Hildebrand was on time to leave Rome and to revert to the Empress for her consent to the election of a new pope in the face of the Florentine Bishop Gerard, who brought to Rome Duke Gottfried, the most powerful figure in Italy after Hildebrand. The new pope was named Nicholas II.

Weakness and arbitrary government called in Germany spravedlivyezhaloby. They opened the way ambitious and daring ideas, especially on the part of the clergy. When the precariousness of all relations of persons of the highest spiritual hierarchy was overcome capture the spirit as for mental development, they outnumbered the secular princes, there are numerous servitors and retainers, as well as those that can be called the media of the time, and that was always a considerable force. Reading pious messages, which the Queen turned to the holy fathers, expressing full confidence that the prayers of Cluny monks to save her husband from death, if they so want, you can understand, how could increase class arrogance, which the whole world attributed special little understandable to the common man, the mysterious and therefore more overwhelming power. Among the monks, surrounded the Archbishop Adalbert of Bremen, cherished the dream of establishing an ambitious northern Patriarchate, Archbishop of Cologne Anno stood, released from the lower classes, but punched his way natural energy. Driven by ambition, he would not be content with what quench their thirst for wealth and power of mediocre people. He believed, perhaps rightly, that will be able to deal better than to stand at the helm of government. Being at the head of the German episcopate, he rightly feared novorimskogo direction, due to the influence of which the Lateran Council in 1059 was not caused by any one of the German bishops. He secretly made friends with the princes, among whom was enjoyed great location Empress Otto Nordhaymsky, Saxon nobleman, has just received the Duchy of Bavaria in the county (1061). Treacherous plan was carried out at Easter 1062 on the island of Kaiserswerth, in the monastery of St. Suitberta where the Empress lived with her son. The conspirators lured a 12-year-old boy on the pretext of riding aboard the ship-colored flags, are already prepared by them on the Rhine, and carried him up the river in Cologne. It is said that a child, seeing the intent, rushed into the water, hoping to swim to shore, where a crowd had gathered, but one of the conspirators pulled him from the water. Criminal trick failed: the new government was formed, in which all things work together was headed by bishops, feel masters of the world. To dispose of all the Archbishop of Cologne. He was attracted to public administration, first archbishop of Mainz Siegfried, and then Archbishop of Bremen, imbued with ambition no less strong, although a different shade. It was an unusually gifted man, of high birth, with a brilliant appearance, smooth speech, extensive thoughts, but at the same time, in spite of the pomp, which he liked to surround himself, as a strict behavior, like Anno. He did not yield to him or in passion or in the love of power. Both care about honor and splendor of their dioceses according to the views of church princes of the time. Especially between the higher clergy developed regionalism. In Whit Monday 1063 in the presence of the young king as a result of a dispute about the primacy of the Bishop of Hildesheim between Gezilonom and Abbot Videradom Fulda Cathedral Church in Goslar was the scene of fierce and bloody battle between the jurisdiction of the dispute ecclesiastical dignitaries. Anno awarded his relatives and followers with shameless nepotism, giving them a good state, and has replaced all the higher ecclesiastical offices and his supporters. The new government could boast of only some external successes. The 1063 campaign ended happily in Hungary under the leadership of Otto Nordhaymskogo, and Solomon, son of King Andrew, overthrown in 1060, was enthroned and crowned in Szekesfehervar in the presence of the young king, his brother-.

At this time, Pope Alexander II was still struggling with the Pope Lombard Kadalom or Honorius II. For some time, Rome was divided into two halves, its streets were the scene of fierce slaughters between the parties. German yard, to which the Empress returned in June 1064, was undecided. Great German princes, like Anno, aware of the danger that threatened them from unrestricted claims Hildebrand party. This situation has forced Anno decide on important measure: having entered into an agreement with an honest member of the reform party, as was, for example, strict Peter Damiani, he insisted on convening in Mantua Cathedral, which should resolve the issue of schism, and he went to the Congress. But this journey proved fatal to its credibility. Archbishop Adalbert, sincerely devoted to the cause of the monarchy and the more indulgent guardian than Anno, has long pushed him from the young Henry. Cathedral without any wrangling again recognized by Pope Alexander II of, condemning Kadan, but Anno returned, he has been suspended by the wayside. His fall will complete when the 15-year-old King of Worms took the sword, together with what stopped custody: Anno rule ended. The Empress, for several years wore monastic garb, could now follow its inclination to the monastic life. First Counselor 15-year-old king was Adalbert.

Source: Eger O. World History in 4m .; OOO "Izdatelstvo AST", Moscow, 2000.