Heinrich Hertz

Picture of Heinrich Hertz

Date of Birth: 02/22/1857

Age: 36

Place of birth: Hamburg

Citizenship: Germany


Heinrich Rudolf Hertz (1857- 1894) was born on 22 February in Hamburg, the family lawyer, who later became a senator. Hertz studied well and was unsurpassed for acumen student. He loved all things, loved to write poetry and work on the lathe. Unfortunately, a lifetime Hertz prevent ill health.

In 1875, after graduating from high school Hertz arrives in Dresden and then in the Munich Higher Technical School. The case went as far as studied general subjects. But as soon as the specialization, Hertz changed his mind. He no longer wants to be a specialist, it is torn to scientific work and entered the University of Berlin. Hertz was lucky: his direct mentor proved Helmholtz. Although the famous physicist, was a supporter of the theory of action at a distance, but as a true scientist, he implicitly admitted that the idea of ??Faraday - Maxwell of the short-range and physical field give excellent agreement with experiment.

Once in the University of Berlin, with a great desire Hertz is committed to studies in physics laboratories. But the work in the laboratory allowed only those students who are engaged in the decision of the competitive problems. Helmholtz proposed Hertz problem of electrodynamics: whether the kinetic energy of the current? Helmholtz would send forces to the Hertz electrodynamics, considering it the most confusing.

Hertz is taken for the solution of the problem, designed for 9 months. He manufactures devices and debug them. When working on the first issue immediately transpired features inherent in Hertz researcher: persistence, hard work and a rare art of the experimenter. The problem was solved in 3 months. The result, as expected, was negative (Now it is clear that the electric current, which is the directional movement of electric charges (electrons, protons), has a kinetic energy. In order to Hertz could detect it, it was necessary to improve the accuracy of his experiment thousands of times ).. This result coincides with the point of view of Helmholtz, though flawed, but he was not wrong in the abilities of the young Hertz. "I saw that had an affair with a student quite unusual talent" - he pointed out later. Hertz`s work was awarded the prize.

When he returned after the summer holidays 1879, Hertz obtained permission to work on a different topic: "On induction in rotating bodies", taken as a doctoral dissertation. He offered to finish it for 2 - 3 months, protect and get the title of doctor as soon as possible, although the University has not yet been completed. Working with great enthusiasm and verve, Hertz quickly completed the study. Protection is successful, and he was awarded a doctorate from the "difference" - an extremely rare phenomenon, especially for a student.

From 1883 to 1885 he headed the Department of Hertz theoretical physics in the provincial town of Kiel, which had no physics laboratory. Hertz has decided to deal with theoretical issues here. He adjusts the system equations of electrodynamics of one of the brightest representatives of the long-range Neumann. As a result of this work, Herz wrote a system of equations from which we easily obtain the Maxwell equation. Hertz disappointed, because he was trying to prove the versatility of the electrodynamic theory of representatives of the long-range, not Maxwell`s theory. "This conclusion can not be regarded as proof of the Maxwell system as the only possible", - he makes for himself, in essence, soothing conclusion.

In 1855, Hertz accepts an invitation from a technical school in Karlsruhe, where it will be conducted remarkable experiments on the propagation of electrical power. More in 1879, the Berlin Academy of Sciences has set the task: "Show experimental existence of any link between the electrodynamic forces and the dielectric polarization of insulators." Preliminary calculations Hertz showed that the expected effect will be very small, even under the most favorable conditions. So, apparently, he gave up this work in the autumn of 1879. However, he did not stop to think about the possible ways of solving it, and came to the conclusion that this high-frequency electrical oscillations needed.

Hertz carefully studied everything that was known at that time about the electrical fluctuations in the theoretical and experimental plans. Found in the physics laboratory technical school a couple of induction coils, and carrying with them the lecture demonstration, Hertz found that with their help you can get fast electrical oscillations with a period of 10-8s. As a result of experiments, Hertz has created not only a high-frequency generator (source of high frequency oscillations), and the cavity - receiver of these oscillations.

Hertz generator consisted of induction coils and wires connected to it, forming a discharge gap, cavity - of a rectangular shape and wires of the two beads at its ends, and forming the discharge gap. As a result of experiments, Hertz found that if the generator will be high-frequency oscillations (in his spark discharge gap slipped), the discharge gap resonator remote from the generator even 3 meters, will also slip a little spark. Thus, the second spark circuit occurred without any direct contact with the first chain. What is the mechanism of its transmission? Or is it the electric induction, according to Maxwell`s theory? In 1887, Hertz is nothing has been said about the electrical waves, although it was noted that the phenomenon of the generator to the receiver is particularly strong in the case of resonance (frequency kolebaniygeneratora coincides with the natural frequency of the resonator).

After numerous experiments at different relative positions of the generator and the receiver, Hertz came to the conclusion about the existence of electromagnetic waves propagating at a finite speed. Will it behave like a light? And Hertz undertakes a thorough review of this assumption. After studying the laws of reflection and refraction, it has proved its full similarity with the light polarization after the establishment and measurement of the speed of electromagnetic waves. All this was described in the paper "On electric power rays", published in December 1888. This year is the year of the discovery of electromagnetic waves and the experimental confirmation of Maxwell`s theory. In 1889, speaking at the Congress of German naturalists, Hertz said: "These experiments are very simple in principle, yet they entail major studies. They demolish any theory which says that electrical power instantly jump space. They represent a brilliant victory of Maxwell`s theory. How unlikely it seemed before its conception of the nature of light, so it is difficult now do not share this view. "

The hard work of Hertz did not pass with impunity to his already poor health. Initially refused eyes, then got sick ears, teeth and nose. Soon began a general infection of the blood, from which he died a famous already in his 37 years of scientist Heinrich Hertz.

Hertz has completed extensive work begun by Faraday. If Maxwell Faraday formed representations in mathematical way, Hertz turned these images into visible and audible electromagnetic waves, he became an eternal monument. We remember H. Hertz, when we listen to the radio, watch TV. It is no accident the first words transmitted by the Russian physicist Alexander Popov on the first wireless communications were: "Heinrich Hertz".