Date of Birth: 02/11/1900
Place of birth: Marburg
Gadamer, Hans-Georg (Gadamer, Hans-Georg) (1900-2002), German philosopher, one of the most important thinkers of the second half of the 20th c., Is best known as the founder of "philosophical hermeneutics".
Born February 11, 1900 in Marburg. He studied philosophy, history, literary theory, art history and evangelical theology at the universities of Marburg and Breslau. In 1922 he defended his doctoral thesis under the direction of Paul Natorp. In 1923 he became acquainted with Heidegger taught at the University of Marburg. Add education study classical philology, and in 1929 he defended his thesis on Plato`s Philebus. From 1939 to 1947 - a professor at the University of Leipzig (in 1946-1947 - Rector). After two years of teaching he took the chair in Frankfurt-am-Main, who had previously directed the Karl Jaspers in Heidelberg University. After retirement (1968) he taught as a visiting professor at universities in the US (until 1989).
Scale Gadamer as a philosopher is defined mainly by its work Truth and method (Wahrheit und Methode, 1960). In this work he refers to Dilthey posed the problem of the philosophical justification of the humanities, however, sees it (under the influence of Hegel and Heidegger) in a different aspect. If Dilthey saw in "understanding" the specificity of human knowledge (in contrast to the natural sciences, for which the basic procedure - "explanation"), for Heidegger`s "understanding" appears in a different capacity - as the experience of human life in its truth.
Gadamer takes up Heidegger`s formulation of the question, but puts it in the context of the problems of Dilthey, asking about "own" true humanitarian knowledge. Developed their hermeneutics is neither a doctrine of understanding art, like Schleiermacher and Dilthey nor self-disclosure of human existence in its being as Heidegger, it is a philosophical clarification of the mind, with the activity that we are dealing in human cognition, and indeed in each act of understanding. This philosophical clarification of the mind, in turn, Gadamer interprets the movement and the implementation of the most historical tradition, thus adhering to the Hegelian philosophy of mind, unfolding in history.
In order to more accurately describe the implementation and experience true tradition, Gadamer uses the model of art. As well as in the arts, in the historical knowledge of the truth is revealed not only in scientific judgments, handed down from the imaginary distance with respect to the subject matter and secured by certain rules of the method, but also because of the involvement of the knower in the integrity of the historical process, which is itself the knower and "done." The aesthetic as well as historical truth is the truth, which commit perform. This is manifested by Gadamer, during the so-called effective history (Wirkungsgeschichte). The point here is primarily on developing the impact of ancient texts: their understanding of flows due to "prejudice" doreflektivnym ideas of our "pre-understanding", which, in the end, have given themselves the texts and traditions of their subsequent interpretation. But the challenge of the text, resulting, according to Gadamer, to the emergence of a specific situation where the submission of our pre-understanding may be called into question and subjected to checking for "efficiency". And there, where the text is understood in the productive interaction ( "game") of our pre-understanding, on the one hand, and a clear, distinct mastering the content of the text - on the other hand, continues the tradition. The basic idea of ??Gadamer, then, is that the tradition should be clarified anew each time, and only under this condition it is done, comes true. Tradition and its update are inseparable from each other, their mutual affiliation manifested in acts of understanding, each time re-committed.
From this setting, Gadamer did not refuse, and in his other writings, although in later works interpretation of the tradition as a complete space receded into the background. The emphasis has shifted to areas of Truth and Method, directly related to the philosophy of language. Language, according to Gadamer, is a ceaseless game of "question - answer", as expressed in the understanding and interpretation of texts, and in the dialogue between individuals.
Its systematic reasoning Gadamer subjected to constant practical verification. He intensively studied the interpretation of poetry (Holderlin, Goethe and Stefan George, Paul Celan) and philosophical classics (Heidegger and Hegel, but first and foremost thinkers of Greek antiquity - Plato, Aristotle).
Gadamer died in Heidelberg, March 13, 2002.
Exposure to extended Gadamer on modern philosophical thought, in many ways. Gadamer, Habermas primarily through mediation, influenced the social philosophy; his polemics with Jacques Derrida`s deconstruction entered into context. Richard Rorty, reducing scores with critical analytical philosophy, recommended its readers Gadamer as an example of a `learning philosophy. " Philosophical hermeneutics in its interpretation of Gadamer made a model of philosophy, aware of its deep connection with the classical tradition and at the same time do not deny the originality of the present situation.