Date of Birth: 08/31/1663
Place of Birth: Paris
Citizenship: United States
Who invented the barometer?
Eulogy, written in 1705 on the death of scientist and writer Amonton de Fontenelle (Bernard le Bovier de Fontenelle) in his book `History nauk` Academy (Histoires de l`acad & # 233; mie des sciences), is the only source of biographical data today, known about this academician.
So Amontons Guillaume was born in Paris (Paris, France) August 31, 1663, the son of a Norman lawyer, who left the province for capital. In his youth, Guillaume as a result of the disease completely lost his hearing, and the trouble prompted him to study the sciences, especially mechanics - the interest in cars more than ever it will not leave. The study of perpetual motion has arisen in young researchers thought that the mechanics, as well as any of the sciences, must act in accordance with certain principles, and if he knew these principles, it would allow him to avoid many mistakes. Therefore Amontons began studying geometry, against the wishes of his parents, who did not see the sense in it is not too profitable and useless, they believe the lesson. He never went to university, but he was able to overcome their own mathematics, physics and celestial mechanics, acquiring along the way remarkable skills in drawing, surveying and architecture. In addition to theory, Amontons, carrying out orders for community service, and has mastered the practice becoming a good engineer. The next step was to study the mechanics - in the first place, of course, available to him at the time of the Cartesian mechanics.
However, despite all this acquired knowledge, favorite area Amonton were machinery and tools. In 1687, 24-year-old inventor presented at the Academy of Sciences a new hygrometer, which has received many excellent reviews. DeFontenel, meanwhile, describes Guillaume as a very simple, humble, sincere, and even a naive person, unable to turn their achievement into a means of profit. At the same time, he was a talented experimenter, generate a lot of rich ideas. Amonton times compared with the founder of the Academy of Sciences Edmom Mariott (Edme Mariotte), while Guillaume from 1699, date of entry to the Academy, to the end of life remained at the Academy pupil position (its leader was the famous astronomer Jean Lefebvre (Jean Le F & # 232; vre) ).
To show us the genius Amonton de Fontenelle says of one of his experiments, carried out twice. It consisted to transmit messages between two points by means of optical signals, which are intercepted by the next position of the telescope, which in turn transmitted the signals to the next station, and so on until the final point of arrival. Each letter of the alphabet had its signal, the value of which was known only to the first and last stations. Interestingly, this is a great invention, a kind of `optical telegraf`, and remains only in the records of the Academy.
Continuing to work on his interesting tools Amontons came to the creation in 1695 of the barometer, hygrometer and thermometer in 1687 in 1695 - a special benefit from their invention was the fleet. As can be seen, Amonton more interested in the practical implementation of the principles of open and accumulated theoretical knowledge.
He died on October 11, 1705, at the age of 42 years, from inflammatory bowel disease, but until then feel perfectly healthy, with the exception of deafness, man. On the Moon there is a crater named after him.