Date of Birth: 07/04/1807
Place of birth: Nice
Giuseppe Garibaldi, Italian patriot and a partisan, was born July 4, 1807 in the family of a sailor and a fishmonger. The future revolutionary early in his life, too, went into the sea and was, as noted by his contemporaries, a good sailor. Already in 1832, he became the captain of a merchant ship. In 1833, as captain of a warship of the kingdom of Sardinia, Garibaldi met Giuseppe Mazzini, Italian patriot and revolutionary legend. Under the influence of Mazzini, Garibaldi became interested in the ideas of the national liberation struggle and books utopian socialists Saint-Simon. Already in 1834, Garibaldi took part in the rebellion in Piedmont, which was supposed to develop into a revolution. But the plan failed rebels. Garibaldi managed to cross into France, although the Genoa court sentenced him in absentia to death.
From 1836 to 1848, Garibaldi lived in exile in South America. At this time, the continent took place permanent revolution, in which Giuseppe took part as far as possible. In particular, he served as a volunteer on a military ship of the Republic of the Rio Grande during its war of liberation against Brazil. During this war, Garibaldi met Anna Maria Ribeiro da Silva (Anita), who became his companion until the end of the battle of life.
In 1840, Garibaldi left the service in the Rio Grande and drove Anita and son in Montevideo, where tried many professions from sales agent to the teacher, but was not able to adapt to civilian life. And in 1842 he got involved in a new war of liberation, now on the side of Uruguay against the Argentine dictator Juan Miguel de Rosas. The following year, Garibaldi was appointed commander of the newly formed Italian Legion in Montevideo. the first group of "scarlet collars" was created from the soldiers of the legion, the future army of Garibaldi. After the victory at San Antonio in 1846 Garibaldi`s fame came to Italy, where he was awarded a sword of glory. During the defense of Montevideo in 1847, he met with Aleksndr Dumas father, who in the future glorified patriot in his novels.
In April 1848 Garibaldi and More 60 Legion soldiers returned to Italy to start a war for independence and unification of Italy. Their movement was called Resurrection (Risorgimento). First, Garibaldi decided to fight against the Pope, but it did not support the army poetomuoni went to war against the King of Sardinia Charles Albert, who gave worthy repulse the rebels. Garibaldi was forced to retreat to Milan in the hope of help. There has already arrived Mazin and led the revolutionary war. Carl Albert, defeated by the Austrians at Custoza, agreed to a truce with the guerrillas. But Garibaldi, this war was a matter of honor, so the battle continued until the end of August, when the exhausted revolutionary was forced to flee to Switzerland.
For a while he lived in Nice, Garibaldi with Anita (they married in 1842) and their three children. But the thought of Italy did not leave him. He was absolutely certain (unfortunately, his confidence is shared by only a handful of Mazzini and associates), that sooner or later Italy, torn by civil strife and external aggressors, is sure to become a single state.
At the end of 1848, Garibaldi went to Rome, from which he fled the Pope. There, he was elected head of the Roman Assembly and proposed to declare Rome an independent republic. But in April 1849 he came to Rome, the French army for the restoration of the Pope`s authority. Garibaldi inflicted on them a crushing defeat as the Neapolitans in the summer of the same year.
It Garibaldi commanded the defense of Rome during his siege of the French. With no chance of winning, he led several thousand troops from rebels, led them through the whole central Italy, until they reached the neutral Republic of San Marino. But there is an army of Garibaldi was surrounded by the Austrians, so he decided to disband it. During the passage through Italy Anita died.
During the siege of Rome Garibaldi became a "hero of two worlds". Despite the fact that many have criticized him for the outbreak of the civil war, absolutely all, both friends and enemies recognized his unique military capabilities and calling to be a true leader.
Piedmont King was very afraid to return to their homeland of Garibaldi, the mother and children. Therefore, Giuseppe was forced again to leave the country, first to Tangier, then to Peru, where he engaged in familiar craft - maritime trade. Only in 1854 he was allowed to return to Sardinia. The fact is that the Prime Minister hoped this step prismirit revolutionary. In 1855 he acquired the island of Caprera Garibaldi, which became his home. In 1856, Garibaldi set about trying to free the political prisoners of the king of Naples, who belonged to the Bourbon dynasty, but the idea came to nothing lead.
In 1858, Prime Minister of Piedmont Garibaldi offered to participate in another war of liberation of the kingdom against the Austrians. The task was set Giuseppe soldiers from different provinces in Italy volunteer army. Garibaldi was even granted the rank of major general of the army of Piedmont. In April 1859 the war began, and Garibaldi was able to break through the borders of Tyrol. This campaign resulted in a conversion of Lombardy to Piedmont.
In September 1859, when Southern Italy at peace, Garibaldi decided to head to Central Italy as Florence declared its independence. There he met with the King of Sardinia, Victor Emanuel II. He offered his support for Garibaldi in the attack on the Pope`s territory with a mandatory condition of victory, since otherwise the king to execute him. But at the last moment, all beat as Victor Emmanuel clearly realized the futility of this idea. In 1860, the king gave France Nice, which belonged to Piedmont since 1814. It was then that Garibaldi is the only time in his life came in the Parliament of the country to express their protest and indignation in connection with such a gross violation of national interests and sovereignty of the state.
In January 1860, Garibaldi decided to marry the daughter of the Marquis Raimondi Dzhozeppine, but dropped it a few hours before the wedding, when he learned that his bride was already five months pregnant by one of the officers of his army.
In May 1960 Garibaldi transgressed in its most ambitious plan - the capture of Sicily and Naples. He did not have any support from the government. Korol and Prime Minister of Piedmont did not dare to interfere with Garibaldi, because he was too popular among the people. They were ready to support the patriot, but only if it is an obvious win. May 6, 1860 about a thousand soldiers of the army of Garibaldi left from the port of Genoa and already on May 11, they were in Sicily. Then Garibaldi, on behalf of the King of Piedmont declared himself dictator of the island. The population of Sicily, Garibaldi met with friendly, some even believed that he - God`s messenger who would deliver them. At the end of May, he was in Palermo. This victory was a strong argument for the prime minister of Piedmont. He agreed to provide troops for the support of Garibaldi. September 7, 1860, he captured Naples and declared himself dictator of the Two Sicilies. After some time, a battle on the Volturno River - the grand battle in the history of Garibaldi`s campaigns, since it is only in his party was attended by about 30,000 soldiers. After the victory in this battle, Garibaldi held a plebiscite in the occupied territories, the results of which handed control of South Italy Piedmont King Victor Immanuel II. November 7, 1860 King triumphantly rode into Naples and Garibaldi greeted him as the first king of united Italy.
Warlord refused all deserved awards and asked the king to only one thing - to leave him in charge of Naples to full stabilization. But he denied, as in the eyes of the conservative elite, he remained dangerous and unpredictable partisan and blasphemer. In addition, Garibaldi did not abandon the idea of ??recapturing Rome that did not correspond to the plans of the King. But the main reason for the refusal was the fact that the figure of Garibaldi was so important and popular among the people, that it could not compete even king.
In 1862 he began a military campaign last general Garibaldi. Imaanuil King invited him to assemble a new rebel army, this time to fight avtriytsami the Balkans. The king promised to provide him with all necessary weapons and ammunition. But Garibaldi broke the agreement and instead to go to the Balkans, went in the direction of Rome, to release the Papal territories. King of Italy did not want the deterioration of relations with France, which prevailed in Rome, so against Garibaldi had sent the whole garrison. In the battle of Aspromonte, Garibaldi was seriously wounded and captured. He was released to freedom, but because of the injury he was lame.
Contact King of Italy with Garibaldi hide already was pointless, so during the war with Austria in 1866, he openly took the side of Victor Emmanuel. Garibaldi completely independently commanded the troops in the Tyrol and in the end, took Venice.
Giuseppe Garibaldi continued to fight almost all his life. But in the last decade, he had to retire, as he suffered from rheumatism. At the end of his life, he declared himself a pacifist (!) And a socialist, although not recognized by Marx and Bakunin. June 2, 1882 Giuseppe Garibaldi died at his home on the island of Caprera.