Date of Birth: 09/10/1887
Place of birth: Pontader
Giovanni Gronchi was born in September 1887 in the town of Pontadera in Tuscany. He became one of the first members of the Christian movement in Italy, founded by a Catholic priest Romolo Murri in 1902. His first academic degree in literature and philosophy Gronchi was studying at the Higher Normal School in Pisa. From 1911 to 1915 he worked as a teacher in several Italian cities, including Parma, Massa, Bergamo and Monza.
With the outbreak of World War Gronchi he volunteered for the front, and after its completion in 1919 became one of the founders of the Italian Catholic People`s Party. In 1919 and in 1921 he was elected to the Italian parliament as an MP from Pisa. At the same time he headed the Italian Confederation of Christian Workers, and in 1922 - 1923 he was the deputy industry and trade minister in the first government of Benito Mussolini. However, in April 1923 at the national meeting of the People`s Party in Turin, it was decided to withdraw from all government posts representatives of this party, among whom was Giovanni Gronchi. After that, he returned to the position of trade union leader, and later often fell under the disgrace of fascist troops, with whom he had to deal.
In 1924, after Luigi Sturzo resigned as Secretary of the People`s Party, a post occupied Gronchi, along with two other prominent party leaders (and Spataro Rodino). In the same year he was re-elected to parliament and joined the anti-fascist opposition, the so-called Aventine movement. In 1926, with the arrival in the country of the new regime, Gronchi was expelled from Parliament.
In the period from 1926 to 1943 Gronchi, not wanting to join the fascist party, has stopped his political career. All these years he made a living by driving your own business, first as a salesman and then industrialist.
A career in the Italian government
In 1943 - 1944`s, he was one of the founders of the new Christian Democratic Party, and became a leader of the left wing faction, along with Giorgio La Pira, Giuseppe Dossetti and Enrico Mattei. In the same years he was a member of the Multi-party committee of the Italian resistance, which also represented his party.
Although Gronchi often at odds with many members of his party, including by its General Secretary Alcide de Gasperi, he still made his way dovolnovysoko in the new government of Italy, leading in 1944 - 1946, the Ministry of Industry, and in 1946 was elected to the Constituent Assembly. From 1948 to 1955 Gronchi was president of the Chamber of Deputies of Italy.
In 1955, the first term of President Luigi Einaudi of Italy came to an end, and Parliament had to choose his successor. The new secretary of the Christian Democratic Party amintore fanfani assisted liberal Cesare Mertsagora, who at the time headed the Senate country. However, the far-right party led by Giuseppe Pella, Giulio Andreotti, Guido Gonella and Salvatore Skok joined forces with the leaders of the Left Giovanni Pastore, Giorgio Bo and Achille Marazzi in revolt against the party leadership to promote Giovanni Gronchi. After many skirmishes, and the final collapse of the centrist front, April 29, 1955 Gronchi was elected president of Italy, gathering 658 votes and 883.
His work as president was marked by the desire to gradually open the government to left-wing parties, when the Socialists and the Communists could join it. Also active policy carried out against Italy`s entry into NATO. However, these projects are met with fierce opposition from the liberal parties.
In an attempt to avoid a deadlock in 1959 Gronchi pushed for Prime Minister trusted members of his own faction of the Catholic left Fernando Tambroni, who faced a lot of resistance, and resist the parliament only by the voices of the neo-fascists. As a result, all politics Gronchi left led to serious consequences. In 1960, in many Italian cities have been riots, especially serious ones were in Genoa, Licata and Reggio Emilia, where police opened fire on demonstrators, killing five people.
After that, trombone and his government of the Christian Democrats in disgrace was forced to resign. The sad experience of the Board Tambroni damped reputation Giovanni Gronchi, and until the end of his term in 1962, he was known in the community as president of the loser. In 1962, with the support of Enrico Mattei Gronchi I tried to get a second term, but this attempt failed miserably, and was elected president Antonio Segni. In accordance with the Constitution of Italy after the expiry of his term Gronchi became a life senator.
Giovanni Gronchi died in Rome in October 1978 at the age of 91.