Giovanni Caselli

Picture of Giovanni Caselli

Date of Birth: 04/25/1815

Age: 76

Place of birth: Siena

Citizenship: Italy

Who invented the fax?

He was born April 25, 1815 in Siena, Italy (Siena, Italy). Early in his career Caselli studied literature, history, science and religion. Despite the apparent interest in physics, Caselli was going to become a priest, and in 1836 passed the rite of ordination. In 1841 he went to Parma (Parma) in Modena (Modena) province to become a mentor sons of the local aristocracy, and earned in the service of money spent on the construction of an experimental sample of his pantelegrafa.

In 1849, Caselli took part in the popular unrest and called for the annexation of the Kingdom of Sardinia Modena (Kingdom of Sardinia). Of course, such behavior could not remain without attention of the authorities, and Caselli was forced to go to Florence (Florence). In the same year he took the position of professor of physics at the University of Florence (University of Florence), where he studied physics, electrochemistry, electricity, magnetism and electromagnetic interaction under the Leopoldo Nobili (Leopoldo Nobili).

In 1851, Caselli started edition of the magazine titled `The Recreation`, in which he wrote about the physics understandable language of ordinary people.

The name `pantelegraf` is a combination of the words` pantograf`, ie a device that copies the written text and drawings, and `telegraf`, or a device capable of sending messages over long distances. While working in the Florence University of the majority of their time devoted to research Caselli technology, by which it would be possible to transmit both text and simple graphics. At the same time these studies were performed, and other physicists, such as the Scotsman Alexander Bain (Alexander Bain) and Englishman Frederick Bakewell (Frederick Bakewell). The main problem was how to achieve a perfect synchronization of the transmitter and receiver and, ultimately, to get the right message. Caselli development in this area was left far behind all the works of his contemporaries.

Caselli made the prototype of his device in 1856 and has demonstrated its ability in the presence of Leopold II, Duke of Tuscany (Leopold II, Grand Duke of Tuscany). The Duke was so impressed with the invention Caselli, he offered to finance his experiments the scientist. When Duke`s enthusiasm waned, Caselli moved to Paris (Paris) and demonstrated the device to Napoleon III (Napoleon III). The French Emperor almost immediately became an enthusiastic fan of the new technology. From 1857 to 1861 he worked on his Caselli pantelegrafom in Paris with the participation of the French inventor and mechanical engineer Leon Foucault (L & # 233; on Foucault).

In 1858, an improved version of the device Caselli French physicist Alexandre-Edmond Becquerel (Alexandre-Edmond Becquerel) demonstrated at the Paris Academy of Sciences. Already in 1860, Caselli had the chance to test his invention in the framework of the French national telegraph network. Caselli had access not only to the French telegraph lines, but also to the large sums of money, which supplied him with Napoleon. The tests were successful - the signature of the composer Gioacchino Rossini made telegraphic journey from Paris to Amiens (Amiens), breaking the 140 km. The next test was conducted already between Paris and Marseille (Marseille), at a distance of 800 km, and is also successful.

pantelegrafnoe permanent connection between Paris and Lyon (Lyon) was established in 1865, two years later - between Paris and Marseille. Grateful France (France) awarded the Italian Order of the Legion of Honour (Legion of Honor), and the Parisian physicists and engineers founded Pantelegrafnoe society to share ideas on improving pantelegrafa.

Alexander Graham Bell received a patent for the telephone (number 174465) in the US Patent Office (USA) only in 1876. Caselli patented his invention (EP 2532) in 1861 in France and 1863 in the United States (United States) - No. 37563. Soon pantelegrafnoe message appeared in other countries, the United Kingdom (UK) and Russia (Russia).

The inventor finally returned to Florence, where he died on June 8, 1891.