At the end of a XIII. Ilkhans single state is in deep crisis. Agriculture has been frustrated, the city fell into disrepair, government revenue declined dramatically. Baskakov scoured the country, like wolves, ruining an already devastated population; Mongol princes and noyons sought to secede from the center, subjugated peoples revolted.
Ghazan Khan (reigned from 1295 till 1304), an outstanding representative of Ilkhans tried to save the state of the Mongols.
He spent vigorous activities shifted bribe-takers, Baskakov, streamlined tax system, has taken steps to revitalize agriculture, trade and exchange. But all the efforts of Ghazan Khan to correct the situation were in vain: the process of disintegration of the Mongol state continued, and Ilhan Abu Said (1316-1335) after the death, the state Ilkhans disintegrated.
The consequences of the rule of Mongolian
The domination of the Mongols had grave consequences for Georgia. It disrupts the political unity of the country. At the beginning of the XIV century established "mnogotsarstvie". In eastern Georgia, the Mongols countered each other brothers - sons of Demetre II: David VIII, Vakhtang III and George.
In western Georgia, after the death of David VI Narin ruled by his sons Vakhtang and Constantine, and in the Racha-Lechkhumi and Argveti began to rule their brother Mikel. Effort and came out of obedience to the king didebuls (feudal lords).
Rebellion against the oppressors, participated in the campaigns of the Mongols, the various epidemics brought in by the Mongols Georgia drastically reduced the population of Georgia. The transformation of Georgia into an arena for clashes between the Golden Horde and the state Ilkhans, the excesses many punitive expeditions led the country to a complete standstill. Were devastated towns and villages, destroyed agriculture, stalled trade. The fear of the Golden Horde Ilhan moved further south trade route linking the east with the west, which adversely affected the country`s economy. The main productive forces of the country - farmers were unable to pay taxes. Ruined the population to leave the inhabited land of their ancestors and seek refuge elsewhere. Much of the land has remained uncultivated.
Relatively better situation was in Samtskhe. Inside the country was dominated by anarchy and disorder, which is particularly felt in the mountainous areas. Created North Caucasian Ossetians took advantage of the situation and began raiding Kartli. They even managed to take the city of Gori.
Against the backdrop of Georgia`s life the XIV century. stood out traces of people experienced stagnation. Mongol rule, or, as in Georgian were expressed at the time, "ulusoba" (dominance ulus), led to a marked change in the economic and socio-political situation of the country.
Around 1310 Abu Saeed Khan wrote in one of his letters that the anise and other areas of Georgia illegally and unlawfully levied various, numerous taxes. Therefore, it was said in a document, "the country has come to desolation, small people scattered, and the city Mamasakhlisi", that is more prosperous citizens, too burdened by unfair tax, "threw his movable and immovable property, the house and fled."
This document is particularly eloquent testimony - in which producers were unbearable situation of material goods, which are being subjected to harassment by the Mongols-Baskakov, at least no less suffering and extortions from countless in favor of the local feudal lords and the Church.
From Georgia to the Mongolian treasury while annually reported about 900,000 rubles. gold. Based on this fact, believe that the state revenue times Mongol domination was only about a quarter of the national income of Georgia pre-Mongol period.
But the actual dimensions of the come under the Mongols of Georgia`s economic decline better displays no reduction in government revenue, and the picture of the economy, the deplorable situation of evicted peasants from their lands, deserted cities, devastated entire regions, the description of what we find in historical sources.
Especially hard hit Valley Mtkvari (Kura), Iori and Alazani. Mongols destroyed the city of Rustavi, Hunan, Shamkhor. Completely emptied rich land Kambechan-Shiraki, Gardabani, Rustavi-Samgori. From Georgia was practically torn away situated to the east of the country Hereti Shaki, Shirvan (from Gishis-Tskali to p. Chaganusun). All these places have become the camp of the Mongol hordes and pastures for their herds.
The same situation has been created in the Armenian regions.
Reduced to poverty, Armenian peasants of whole villages went from one to the other regions of Georgia or abroad.
One of the main reasons for the economic decline of the country, as it was mentioned, was the intensification of the class struggle between the feudal lords and peasants. The farmer could no longer withstand the onslaught of the "own" and "foreign" predators, ie levies, produced by the Georgian feudal lords and Mongolian baskaks; he threw discounted economy, was shot from the point was made hizanom or God. Moreover, from small aznauris peasants fled to the large, sought refuge with the lords who took "hasindzhu" as well as the monasteries churches, hoping for more favorable conditions of existence. Runaway peasants found sympathy and support among the local peasantry. Class brothers willingly provided them with shelter, sheltering them from harassment by the masters.
The country is going through hard times. The landlord was deprived of the corvee and dues, and baskak - opportunity to collect tribute.
The feudal lords have made persistent attempts to bring back fugitive peasants, turning for help to the authorities. To meet the wishes of the feudal lords, Ghazan Khan in 1303 issued a decree by virtue of which the peasants were forbidden to leave without permission pudze and feudal lords - and give shelter hizanam God, According to the decree, the lord granted the right to conduct searches and regain fugitive for 30 years.
Practice attaching Georgian peasants to pudze has been a long-standing phenomenon, and the real meaning of Ghazan Khan decree consisted except that, relying on him, the Georgian feudal lords could still vigorously pursue the matter of the final enslavement of those mdabiurov warriors, who still retained personal freedom .
At the same time in Georgia strained relations between mountain communities and the valley. Mountaineers trying to get rid of them imposed by force of feudal relations, restore its former freedom. They killed the king eristavis, governors and other officials expelled ministers of the Christian Church, raided the valley area.
For its part, the feudal state was trying to subdue the rebellious Highlanders arms, through legislation, to adopt the same social relations that existed in the valley, by the power of the cross and the gospel back mountain tribes under the rule of the feudal state.
The emergence satavado
Georgia`s economic decline led to undermining the basis of its political unity. Many cities have ceased to exist, while others languish life, sharply reduced production of handicrafts, and thus weakened the exchange and trade.
Mtavari and didebuls-aznauris won the right to inheritance and ownership of land serfs, who complained to them in the form of kings "dideba". Mtavari and Eristavi as patrons, and obeyed aznauris mdabiury warriors who were holding land plots in their Samtavro and Eristavstvo.
Eristavi-eristavis took advantage of this weakening of the imperial power and, with the active support of the Mongols, they Mtavari, usurped the prerogatives of the king.
At the same time, on the basis of the same socio-economic relations formed a small, self-sufficient organization, it is the "house" (Sahli) didebuls-Aznaur - satavado, which becomes the mainstay of heightened mtavaris or grinds kings.
By XIV century didebuls-aznauris, the direct ancestors of the later social tavad (princes), already stood out from the common layer aznauris and made themselves a separate class. Now, for the final formation of satavado lacked only the condition that the sovereign (king or Mtavari) provided didebuls-Aznaur right to expose the army from the territory of their home. With the realization of this condition has disappeared, as has been excessive, Institute eristavis with the appropriate transition of its military functions to tavad.
The Early Years
After the death of his father George was brought up at the court of his grandfather Beka Jakeli virtually independent ruler of Samtskhe, whose domain covered the territory from Tashiskari to Basiani.
In 1314 the Mongols adopted son on the throne of David VIII - George VI Mtsire ( `Small`) (originally George VI was enthroned in 1308 when his father still lives with the regency of his uncle - George V-th). After the death of George Small throne for the second time he took the youngest son of Demetre II - George V. By this time his older brothers David and Vakhtang was no longer alive, and concentrated in the hands of the king b & # 242; most of the country. Thus began a new secondary conditions of Georgian lands into a single state. Favorable foreign policy situation, the friendship of the court of the Mongol Khan, as well as a political gift allowed George to achieve the unification of the country`s significant progress.
By the time of the reign of George V had the catastrophic situation in the country. In fact, there was a question of life or death of the Georgian state. George V began active work on the revival of the country even before accession.
Successful diplomatic and military policy George V
George V Relations with Ilkhans
As we know, the second half of the XIII century. there has been a disintegration of the united Georgian state. For the Likhi Range, in western Georgia, determined by an independent kingdom of Imereti. In fact, independent of the king of Georgia and became Samtavro - Samtskhe. Later the rest of the country, by the will of the Mongolian Khan, was divided between the sons of Demetre II.
In the years 1316-1317 as a result of negotiations George V with the Egyptian Sultan of Georgia was returned to the Jerusalem Cross Monastery and the keys to the sanctuary, once weaned the Muslims and converted into a mosque. The Georgians were granted the right to enter Jerusalem riding on horses with banners unfurled.
George V saw that the power Mongols came to an end, and sooner or later their state collapse. Ought to act very carefully and wisely, that Georgia will not be in these ruins. To do this, George V changed his policy towards Ilkhans: abandoned revolts against them and did not quarrel with them.
In 1316, when, after the death of Oldzhay Khan on ilhansky was enthroned young Abu Said, King George V went to the horde introduce Khan. The first vizier Khan was Choban Noyon, a close friend of the king George V. Chopan treasured this friendship, relying on the loyalty of the Georgian king. Indeed, George V was put Ciobanu. Wise counsel and military valor, manifested in joint campaigns with the Mongols, he has earned a lot of trust Khan`s court. Because a horde arrived in the king George V Choban "gave the whole of Georgia and all mtavaris Georgia, and the sons of King David, and the Meskhetian sons Beck"; in other words, he gave the right of George V to bring together Georgian lands, subdue mtavaris and kings, in particular, the sons of his brother - King David. This meant that the court of the Mongol Khan, experiencing a political crisis, was no longer able to support Georgia in the centrifugal trends of numerous minor rulers.
Thus, the successful foreign policy of George V established a good relationship with ilhanskim Emir Choban-no