Date of Birth: 06/04/1738
Place of birth: London
Citizenship: United Kingdom
A long (almost 60 years, the second-longest reign after Victoria) George III`s reign was marked by revolutionary events in the world: the separation of the American colonies of the British Crown and the US education, the French Revolution and the Anglo-French political and armed struggle, which ended the Napoleonic Wars. In the history of Georg also entered as a victim of severe mental illness, which resulted in over it from 1811 it was found the regency.
Since 1801, the country became officially known as the Kingdom of Great Britain does not, as the United Kingdom (England United Kingdom.); in the same year, George III (under the temporary normalization of relations with republican France) renounced purely formal title of "King of France", which was used in all English and then British kings from the time of the Hundred Years War. In 1814 (when George was already terminally ill, and acted regency) Hanover status was raised to the Electorate to the kingdom, sootvetstvennno George III became this year the first king of Hanover.
The grandson of George II of, the eldest son of Lewis Frederick, Prince of Wales, who died during his father`s life in 1751. After this 12-year-old Prince George himself became the Prince of Wales, and after the death of his grandfather in 1760 came to the throne. He was the first monarch of the Hanover dynasty, born in the United Kingdom; Unlike his father, grandfather and great-grandfather, the English language was native to him. In Germany, he had never been.
Political developments reign
Brought up under the leadership of Lord Bute in antivigskih principles, the young king immediately upon accession to the throne (in 1760) decided to break the power of the Whig Party. With the help of "friends of the king," Pitt was removed from power (1761), and the results of his policies have been destroyed by the Paris peace (1763). However, the incompetence of Lord Bute delayed triumph Toryism, and George even had to re-admit to the power of the Whigs (the Ministry Rokingema, 1766). Finally Pitt, built in the Lords with the title of Count Chetham and broke with the Whigs, agreed to come to the aid of the king; but a nervous breakdown soon forced him to retire, and the head of the board was the Duke of Grafton, follow a policy of weakening the Party and strengthen the power of the crown. In 1770, Georg, has not lost its popularity, has appointed the first Minister Lord North, who was an obedient tool in the hands of the king. The era of disaster and disgrace, emergency measures, intimidation of the opposition.
Anything king policy of repression against the American colonists was popular in England until the announcement of the war did not follow delivery of Burgoyne at Saratoga and the French intervention (1778). North was about to give up power in favor of Lord Chatham, but George did not want to "own the crown while in chains." Excitation in society has grown; American failure followed failure; Home discontent found expression in gordonovskih riots (1780).
Crown conflict with Parliament
Denning proposed his famous resolution on increasing the influence of the crown. Through the Lord Thurloe Georg he tried to enter into an agreement with the opposition, but was a complete failure as a result of putting the army of Lord Cornwallis. In March 1782 the North resigned. Once again, the king fell under the power of the Whigs hated him. During the short second ministry Rokingema he was forced to agree to the recognition of American independence, and even found the Lord Shelberna more compliant, but a coalition of Fox and North, formed in 1783, came into operation with the clear intention to break the royal power. George decided to appeal to the country: through the unconstitutional use of their personal influence in the House of Lords, he has ensured that contributed Fox East India Bill was rejected. Ministers resigned and after Pitt the Younger, the new First Minister, courageously withstood the fight against the majority in the House of Commons, Parliament was dissolved (1784). Elections noted a complete victory over the crown Whig oligarchy. A period of significant material progress, during which the excellent management Pitt earned the crown and more popular. In 1789, King suffered a mental breakdown, but soon recovered.
The explosion of the French Revolution frightened even the most dissatisfied with the king of the Whigs and bent them to support the throne. With the approval of the upper classes of the king and his ministers joined the fight with France, joined the European coalition. The burden imposed on this nation, quickly made a very unpopular war, and with it, and the king. Nevertheless, the war continued. In Ireland, a rebellion broke out that Pitt wanted to put out the emancipation of Catholics; King has not given its consent to such a measure, on the grounds that it would have on his part violation of the coronation oath, and met strong commitment to the minister, was forced to accept his resignation (March 1801). Georg second time fell into madness, but soon recovered. Succeeded by Pitt, Addington, concluded in March 1802 Peace of Amiens, but in May 1803 the war was again declared. Among the activity of the preparations to repel the French king again for some time I have been the victim of madness. Failure Addington tired and parliament, and the people, and they began to demand the return to power of Pitt. Negotiations have been initiated. Pitt wanted to form a ministry on a broad basis; but the king did not agree to include Fox in person he does not like it, and it was formed purely Tory government. The fight against Napoleon continued without much success. When he died, Pitt (1806), the king against his will was forced to call upon the Fox and Granville as the leaders of the "Ministry of all the talents." Grenville, weakened by the death of Fox, tried to push back the claims of Catholics in the form of modest measures to facilitate access to officers in the army and navy. King demanded from the Ministry of rejection of the bill. Ministers obeyed, but against the wishes of the King did not renounced the right to raise this issue again at more favorable terms - were dismissed. Their place was taken by the Ministry of the Duke of Portland, which was the de facto head of Percival. The abnormal state of society was reflected again in the approval of the voters of the unconstitutional actions of the image of the King (1807). The Ministry, in spite of a number of errors and failures in foreign policy, has not been overthrown, as was on their side too a large majority; later due to successful actions of Wellington in Spain, his position became even stronger. In 1811, the king fell into hopeless insanity and blind: administration of the country was taken over by the regent.
In writing this article used material from the Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary (1890-1907).
Since 1789 the king was suffering from attacks of hereditary disease porphyria exchange , during which happens quite insane; since 1811 over the blind king, the disease which has become irreversible, it was found the regency; Prince Regent was his eldest son, George, Prince of Wales. Who lost his mind monarch faded after eight years, 82-year life. George never knew that he was the King of Hanover (1814) and the death of his wife (1818).
George III was married (since 1761), Princess Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz; this marriage was successful (with the king, unlike his immediate predecessors and successors, was not mistresses). George was also the British king to large in history: he and Charlotte were born 15 children - nine sons and six daughters. (Queen Anne was pregnant 18 times, but gave birth to live only 5 children, who all died in childhood).