Siddhartha Gautama - the key figure in Buddhism, whose life, wise sayings, conversation with his disciples, and monastic precepts became the basis of a full set of sacred Buddhist texts, `Tripitaki`. In addition, the Buddha - the hero of many dharmic religions, including Hinduism and later boom, and the character that is included in the number of avatars of Vishnu (Vishnu) instead of Balarama (Balar & # 257; ma), one of the forms of God in Hinduism.
Gautama Buddha was born about 563 BC. e. or 623 BC. e, but reliable information on his life is so small that traditional life is based on a number of Buddhist texts, including Lalitavistara` `(` Lalitavistara S & # 363; tra`).. But even the first texts related to the name of the Buddha, there were 400 years after his death and passed through hyperbole, approved by the monks.
Shakyamuni Buddha began his journey to enlightenment over many hundreds of lives before the release of painful `wheel alternation of lives and smertey`, with a meeting with the scientist Brahmin Sumedha Buddha Dipankar. Struck by the serenity of Buddha Sumedha wanted such a state, and after his death, the power of this desire influenced his subsequent incarnation in human and animal bodies, and of Sumedha became known as `bodhisatvoy`. While lodging cycle and improving, a bodhisattva in the penultimate time appeared among the gods, where he received the opportunity to choose a place for the final birth on earth. And he ostanovilvybor on Shakya family of the king, so that people showed more respect and confidence in the forthcoming sermons of the Buddha.
Traditional biography states that Raja Shuddhodana (Suddhodana), most likely a member of the ruling Kshatriya assembly, became the father of the Buddha, and his mother - the Queen Maha Maya (Maha Maya), the princess of the kingdom Koliev. On the night of conception, the future founder of Buddhism, Maha saw in a dream the elephant with six white tusks that entered her right side.
Paying tribute to the tradition of the Shakya, Maha Maya came to his parents` house, where generations have had to take place, but the baby was born early - on the road, under a tree Asoka, in the grove of Lumbini (Lumbini). Newborn immediately got to his feet, saying it is a being superior to gods and men. Almost all sources claim that Maha Maya died a few days after the birth of a miracle son. Hermit-seer Asita (Asita) counted on the baby`s body 32 sign of his greatness and blessed him, promising that the boy would become a great saint or chakravartin. On the fifth day of the birth of the child named Siddhartha ( `the one who has made his tseli`), he invited eight Brahmins and use them to confirm his ambivalent future.
Siddhartha Maha raised Padzhapati (Maha Pajapati), sister of Maha Maya, while his father in every way shielded his son from religious teachings and knowledge of the impermanence of life. The boy lived in three palaces, overtaking peers, both physically and mental development, and tended to reflect. At age 16, he married his cousin, Princess Yasodhara (Ya & # 347; odhar & # 257;), which a few years later gave birth to his son, Rahula (Rahula). For years, Prince Siddhartha was Kapilavastu (Kapilavastu), but inside he felt that material wealth is not the final goal of its existence.
When Siddhartha said 29 birthday, he succeeded with charioteer Channy (Channa) go beyond the palace, where a serene prince saw `four zrelischa`. He realized all the harsh realities of life, when a beggar came to the man sick hermit and stinking corpse, and realized that the only way to comprehend all human suffering - a path of self-discovery. After that Siddhartha secretly left his home, family and their wealth, so that the long journeys to find a way to get rid of suffering.
Dressed as a commoner, Siddhartha became an ascetic, begging, learned yogic meditation, mastered the teachings of Alara Kalama (Alara Kalama) and became a disciple of udaka Ramaputy (Udaka Ramaputta). Out on the highest level of meditative concentration, Siddhartha along with five satellites was in the south-east of India, where he practiced severe penance and mortification of the flesh, but after six years - on the verge of life and death - came to the conclusion that austerity does not give a greater understanding of, and only clouds the mind and depletes the body.
Satellites left Siddhartha, who single-handedly reached the state of jhana, and after 49 days of meditation on the full moon of the month Vaisakha moved into a state of `Highest Probuzhdeniya`, Nibbana or Nirvana, and gained knowledge of` Four Noble Istin`. After that Siddhartha became the Buddha or `Probudivshimsya`. Who knows how deep compassion for all other beings creatures, Buddha decided to become a teacher and to share the true Dharma to others.
45 years, he traveled the Ganges River Valley (Gang), sharing knowledge and making miracles without partiality. However, not all happily responded to his message, and opposition religious groups have repeatedly tried to kill the Buddha.
The 80-year-old Gautam Buddha said that soon reaches the final stage of immortality, Parinirvana, and get rid of the earthly body. Legend has it that before his death, the Buddha said to his disciples: `Strive to own a particular release userdiem`. After special cremation his relics were divided into eight parts and put in the bottom of stupas. It is believed that in the place of Dalada Maligawa Sri Lanka (Dalada Maligawa, Sri Lanka) kept sacred relic, `Tooth Buddy`.
Interpretations stories of Buddha`s life abound. And if the early Western science willingly accepted biography of a spiritual teacher from ancient India, but today scientists are not in a hurry to share anecdotal evidence of historical facts, in one way or another connected with the Buddha.