Date of Birth: 02/15/1564
Place of birth: Pisa
Galileo Galilei was born on February 15, 1564 in the city of Pisa in the noble but impoverished family. His father, Vincenzo Galilei was a talented musician and composer, but art did not give means of subsistence, and it burned in the cloth trade.
Until eleven years Galileo lived in Pisa and went to school, and then moved with his family to Florence. Here he continued his education at the Benedictine Monastery, where he studied grammar, arithmetic, rhetoric, and other subjects.
At seventeen, Galileo enrolled in the University of Pisa and began to prepare for the medical profession. Due to constrained financial position, he had to quit university and return to Florence. Here Galileo began to study mathematics and physics. In 1586 he wrote his first scientific work "Small hydrostatic scales".
In 1589, Galileo received a chair of mathematics at the University of Pisa, where he taught mathematics and astronomy. By this time include the experiences that he put, throwing a variety of body inclined Tower of Pisa, to see if they fall in line with the teachings of Aristotle - Heavy faster than light. The answer turned out negative.
In 1609 Galileo sets the law of inertia, law of free fall, motion of the body on an inclined plane (1604 - 09) and the body thrown at an angle to the horizon, to discover the laws of addition of motion and the law of constant period of oscillation of a pendulum (oscillation phenomenon isochronism, 1583). From Galileo has its origin Dynamics.
1592 - 1610 - Galileo became a professor of Padua, the university in the future - appointed court philosopher and mathematician Duke Cosimo II de `Medici.
Since 1606, Galileo began to study astronomy. In July 1609, Galileo built his first telescope - an optical system, consisting of convex and concave lenses - and began systematic astronomical observations. This was the second birth of the telescope, which, after almost 20 years of uncertainty has become a powerful tool of scientific knowledge. Therefore, Galileo can be regarded as the inventor of the first telescope.
He quickly improved his telescope and, as he wrote at the time, "he has built himself the instrument to the extent wonderful that with the help of the objects were almost a thousand times more and in more than thirty times closer than when observing" the naked eye "Scientists the telescope was set up with a magnification of 32 times the night of January 7, 1610, he directs the telescope to the sky what he saw there -.. moonscape, mountain ranges and peaks - privodilok the idea that the moon similar to Earth and has mountain ranges - a fact testified against religious dogma and the Aristotelian doctrine of the special position of the earth among the celestial bodies Galileo discovered four moons of Jupiter, which is not consistent with the teachings of Aristotle, Galileo found that the Sun rotates around its axis on the basis of observations, Galileo concluded... that the rotation about the axis common to all the heavenly bodies, and that the heliocentric system of the world, offered by Copernicus, is the only true.
Galileo begins more boldly promote the teachings of Copernicus. In 1616, eleven prominent theologians considered the teachings of Copernicus, and came to the conclusion that its falsity. It was declared heretical, and the book of Copernicus` On the Revolutions of the Celestial sphere "included in the index of forbidden books. Galileo was summoned from Florence to Rome and demanded to stop propagation of heretical representations about the world. Galileo was forced to submit. In 1632 he published a book "Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems - Ptolemaic and Copernican." The book is written as a dialogue between two supporters of Copernicus and a supporter of Aristotle and Ptolemy. Each of interlocutors tries to understand the point of view of another, having admitted its justice.
The sanctions followed immediately. Sale "Dialogue .." banned and Galileo was summoned to court in Rome. The investigation lasted from April to June 1633, and June 22 in the same church, almost on the same spot where Giordano Bruno listened to a death sentence, Galileo, on his knees, he said, the proposed text of the abdication.
In the last years of his life he had to work in difficult conditions.
At his villa Archertri (Florence) he was under house arrest (under the constant supervision of the Inquisition).
There, for two years, Galileo wrote "Conversations and mathematical proofs ...", which sets out the basics of dynamics. In May 1636 a scientist talks about his work in the Netherlands edition, and then secretly forwards to the manuscript. "Conversations ..." are published in Neleus de in July 1638, and in Archertri book gets almost a year - in June 1639. By the time the sick, blind, Galileo could only touch my baby hands.
Galileo died on January 8, 1642. He was buried in the monastic chapel of the cathedral of Santa Croce in Florence, without honors and tombstones.
Only in November 1979, Pope John Paul II officially recognized that the Inquisition in 1633 made the mistake of forcing the power to deny a scientist from the Copernican theory.