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Ferdinand Vrangel

Picture of Ferdinand Vrangel

Date of Birth: 09/01/1796

Age: 73

Place of birth: Pskov

Citizenship: Russia

Background

In 1807, after the death of his parents, Wrangel was defined in the Marine Cadet Corps. In 1815, he was promoted to warrant officers. In 1817, Wrangell was appointed to the sloop "Kamchatka", which, under Captain Golovnin team went into a two-year voyage around the world. Commander "Kamchatka" failed to appreciate the outstanding qualities of the young Wrangel; on his return from a voyage Wrangel, on his recommendation, he was appointed head of the expedition to study the northern coast of eastern Siberia. The northern coast of Siberia, and some of the adjacent islands, from the XVII century, has repeatedly been osmatrivaemy Cossacks and industrialists, and part describes naval officers and surveyors; but, imperfect tools and techniques of brave explorers XVII and XVIII centuries, the charts did not meet the requirements of modern geography. Finally, the constantly renewed tradition of the existence of inhabited land to the north of the New Siberian and vs. River Kolyma prompted the Government to send to the mouths of the Yana River and Kolyma "two naval officers with assistants, bringing them all sorts of ways to the discovery of the alleged in the Arctic sea land and a precise description of the coast of Siberia east of the Yana river ". In view of the failure of previous attempts to produce an inventory of "icy sea" on seaworthiness, Admiralty department recognized for the best way to travel expeditions - moving across the ice to the dogs in the spring time. Head of Kolyma expedition was appointed Wrangell, and Jansky expedition - his comrade in the Corps PF Anjou. The assistant to his Wrangel took midshipman Matyushkina, navigator Kozmina and Dr. Kibera. In preparation for the expedition, Wrangel winter 1819/1820 was engaged in Dorpat astronomy, physics and mineralogy. In May 1820, Wrangel arrived in Irkutsk, where the Governor-General MM Speranski expedition had an active protection. Four years Wrangel spent in the Far North, using the spring and summer travel on the ice and in the inventory of the coast, and spent the winter in the Lower Kolyma. Russian Description Wrangel published only in 1841, while already in 1839 there was a German translation by EA Engelhardt. With this German edition, printed on the initiative and with a foreword by the famous geographer K. Ritter, Wrangell trip translated into English wife of a British traveler E. Sabin and French Prince Golitsyn. English translation in 1842 came a second edition. Regardless of the scientific value of this work, it is a work of art: paintings of nature, manners and customs of the population, crafts and wealth of Siberia - all described with the observation, simple and expressive language. In composing his "Nature and Man in the High North," the famous writer Hartwig says: "The difficulties which had to fight Wrangel, jealousy towards achieving scientific results made by them to deprivation and danger, courage and will power - all this, undoubtedly, gives Wrangel right, along with Franklin and Parry, be in the front row Iceman ". The main result of four years of travels and studies were as follows: 1) described the coast from the mouth of the Kolyma River to Kolyuchin island; 2) made numerous observations and gathered great information about the peoples and works almost unknown edge of Siberia; 3) Sea Viewed from a distance of up to 260 miles from shore, and Wrangel was convinced "that udobodostigaemom from the Asian shores of the distance is not on the Arctic sea land. If the North there is the earth, then to open it should be undertaken journey after bezburnoy, frosty winter from Cape Yakana, where, according to the testimony of residents, most unknown country is moving closer to the coast of the Asian continent. " In 1867, an American whaler Long really opened the ground near the site, scheduled Wrangel on the map, which was named Wrangel Land; 4) At its repeated attempts to penetrate the ice to the North, Expedition Wrangel and Anjou everywhere met an insurmountable obstacle in the form of an open body of water. The existence of this so-called "large polynya", first proved by these travelers, served as, among other things, Nordenshildu basis for his bold enterprise. After 4 years the expedition was instructed to return to Irkutsk. Wrangel had sought permission to stay for another year or two, to still try your luck and reach from Cape Yakana land, the existence of which he had no doubt, but he was denied. In fervale 1824 Wrangel arrived in Irkutsk; in July 1824 he returned to St. Petersburg. Emperor Alexander I took Wrangel very favorably, awarding him the Order of Vladimir 4 degrees. In the autumn of the same in 1824 Wrangel was appointed commander of military transport "gentle", intended to circumnavigate the globe for delivering supplies to Kamchatka. In August 1825, "Meek" out to sea, and, performing a task, back in September 1827 a description of this journey Wrangell presented in Admiralty, but it was not published, and the manuscript was lost; He survived in the archive only shhanechny magazine, from which, in 1882, extracted and printed meteorological and other observations, among other things, the water temperature, which in our fleet was observed for the first time on the "meek" correctly 4 times a day. On his return from a voyage Wrangel was appointed commander of the frigate "Elizabeth". In the autumn of 1828 the frigate arrived in Kronstadt. At the end of the winter of 1828 he was invited by the directors of North American companies to take the post of chief administrator of the colonies. He accepted the offer, he sulivshee independent range of activities. In March 1829 Wrangel was promoted to Captain 1 rank with the appointment of the governor of the North American colonies. In November 1830, Wrangell and his family arrived in Sitka, where he spent 5 years circling the colony each year. Getting acquainted with the needs on the ground edge, Wrangel organized a proper fisheries exploitation, preserving at the same time the native population from abuse convivial agents; in their humanitarian endeavors Wrangel met strong support in the missionary work of Benjamin, a priest and later Bishop Innocent, Metropolitan of Moscow. In 1835, Wrangell departed Sitka, visited the company owned by Colony Ross (near Bay Bodego, California), crossed Mexico from San Blas port to Verakrutsa where through Havre arrived in Kronstadt, in the summer of 1836 Visit to Mexico was intended to achieve, on the part of the Republic , fertile valley concessions extending to 20 miles from the colony of Ross. Mexican authorities agreed to various concessions, if Russia will enter into official relations with the government. Reporting later this Emperor Nicholas Pavlovich, Wrangel pointed to the example of Prussia, who, not recognizing officially the Republic, concluded, however, through its Consul General lucrative trade treatise, but the Emperor interrupted him with the words: "For Prussia benefits ahead of honor, and I have the opposite ". As a result of this decision, a colony of Ross, brings nothing but losses, was abolished. The area occupied by the former colony, and still remains barren. Gold-bearing sands were discovered later in the places that lie beyond the ridge of the mountains that separate the coastal strip on which was located the settlement, from the valleys extending inland (see. "Historical review of the formation of the Russian-American colonies" P. Tikhmenev). July 8, 1836 Wrangell promoted to rear admiral, in August appointed director of the Department of Forests ship. In 1838, Wrangell, remaining director of the department, was elected head of the Russian company`s North American colonies affairs, and in 1840 the main director of it, what remained until 1849 Activities Wrangel led the company is a brilliant era of this society. The entrusted him with his characteristic energy management Wrangell department took up the fight against abuse and inculcate the routine was initially support the Minister of Marine Prince Alexander in his efforts Menshikov was going on, however, did not last long, and because Wrangel retired and settled in his estate Rouil, Estonian province. In 1854, Wrangell appointed Director of the Hydrographic Department, then chairman of the commission for the revision of maritime criminal laws, and in 1855 - Chairman of the Scientific Committee and the Inspector navigators. Depot cards, a library, printing house was put in order. "Maritime Collection" has taken a new direction, so that the magazine has gained good value in our literature. May 18, 1855, Wrangell appointed Managing Marine Ministry, at the same time a member of the Siberian Committee, in August of the same years- member of the committee for consideration means to protect the Baltic Sea. In 1856 Wrangel was appointed adjutant-general and promoted to admiral. With enthusiasm Wrangell surrendered feverish activity excited in the Naval Department, General-Admiral His Imperial Highness Grand Duke Konstantin Nikolayevich. Mention of new institutions and reforms in the administration, the initiative that belongs to Wrangel, namely: 1) the formation of a technical committee; 2) the appointment of naval officers policeman captains in the Black and Azov Seas Ports; 3) the Admiralty Board transformation into a form in which it now is, and 4) a statement of special note of the need and benefits of developing the Black and Caspian seas merchant merchant fleet of powerful ships, which need to establish a privileged corporation, to benefit from the treasury. Occurs when decisiveness and directness, collisions and excessive tension broke down, however, the forces of Wrangel in April 1857 he went for treatment abroad. In June, Wrangel was dismissed from the post of manager of the Naval Ministry and was appointed member of the State Council. At this time in all branches of government were made significant changes: the liberation of the peasants, judicial reform, the destruction of the repurchase, the introduction of cash unity, state control and many others. Lacking oratorical talent, Wrangell their views on the issues discussed mainly expounded in memoirs and notes that give read elected fellow members, and some of his notes gave rise to a change in the predetermination of events. Renewed in 1864 Wrangel former ailment forced to leave the service classes. After 2 years in a foreign land, he finally settled on his estate, but also in the rustic seclusion took an active part in the topic of the day and shared his opinions based on extensive experience, in correspondence with their friends. He died while in transit in Dorpat, May 25, 1870 of a heart attack, 84 years old. Chief among his works are: "Essay on the way from Sitka to St. Petersburg" (1836); "Historical review of travel in the Arctic Ocean" (1836); "Journey to the northern shores of Siberia and on the Arctic Sea" (1841). Very interesting information about the north-west coast of America, reported Wrangel, appeared in German and make up Volume I of "Beitrage zur Kenntniss des Russischen Reiches", edition Baer and Gelmersen. As can be seen from the preface publishers Wrangel notes were the first occasion to the bottom of this academic publication. Biographical sketch of his appeared in the "Russian Antiquities", t. V, 1872 .: "Baron Ferdinand von Wrangel" KI Schwarz. In German: "Ferdinand von Wrangel und seine Reise langs der Nordkuste von Sibirien und auf dem Eismeere" (von L. v Engelhardt, Leipzig, 1885.). FF Wrangell.