Date of Birth: 08/27/1896
Faina Ranevskaya: Queen sarcasm
Author: Andrew Puminov
The actress was merciless to others, and, above all, to itself. Her sarcastic expression, in which she abhorred and area mot, fought on the spot and, without exaggeration, became winged. While Ranevskaya has long passed away, and her theatrical roles remembers only the older generation of viewers interested in films with her participation does not pass, and aphorisms collections are sold in large editions, confirming the accuracy of the estimates paradoxical actress.
It should be noted that the paradox was accompanied by Faina since childhood. She was born in a quiet provincial Taganrog in 1896 (15/27 August). The father, Hirsch (Gregory or George) Feldman was one of the richest merchants of the city, and his five children (eldest died at the age of three) in no way needed. However, Fanny, his parents brought a lot of trouble. The younger daughter felt very ugly (especially compared with her sister Bella), suffered a long stuttering and did not get along with others, and later refused to go to school and studied at home. In the three years Fanny organized a puppet theater and act out scenes from the long `Petrushki` and 8 years independently read the first serious work - Chekhov`s` Boring istoriyu`, the fate of the main character of which mysteriously reflected in her own.
At age 14, after seeing the performances of the Moscow Arts Theater, the girl began to literally dream theater and started taking private lessons. Father disapproved of these hobbies, hoping Fanny eventually outgrow them. However, when at age 19 she said that he was going to Moscow to become an actress, a scandal. The father refused his daughter to material support, it is still left, and maintained relations only with his mother, secretly sent her a small amount. All studios and theater schools Faina received flat refusal, and after a series of lessons from private teachers she barely managed to get near Moscow `Summer teatr`. Among its cast were such celebrities as Sadovskaya, Petipa, singers. Faina chosen alias `Ranevskaya` (similarities between himself and Chekhov`s heroine) and began to appear on stage in the crowd, while studying acting. Finally, given Ranevskaya first role - the truth, without words - and it was praised by the director himself Singers. Encouraged by the success, Faina entered entreprise Ladovsky role on `Grand koket`. It`s hard to say which was the failure of the repertory, but the revolutionary year of 1917 Ranevskaya met in Crimea, roaming in different theaters, and could not even say goodbye to his family, to travel abroad.
Since 1920, the actress is in the company of the Crimean `First Soviet teatra`. According to the memoirs Ranevskaya, she and Paul Wolfe managed to become the first listener `Red paskhi` Voloshin, written by him in the night, when there was fierce shooting. While Ranevskaya played and the infusion of `On dne` and Masha from` Chayki`. However, the predominant characteristic of the age and the images in her repertoire: the crazy lady in `Groze`, Charlotte (` The Cherry Orchard), the matchmaker of `Zhenitby` etc.
After the Crimea, for several years, Ranevskaya played on the stages of various cities - Baku, Stalingrad, Smolensk and others. She sang almost the entire repertoire of Chekhov, was inimitable in Distinguishing roles Merchutkina and Zmeyukinoy. However, one of her best roles, reviews of which were printed even Moscow newspapers, became Dunka from `Love Yarovoy` set in Smolensk Theater in 1926.
In 1931 Ranevskaya came to the troupe of the Moscow Chamber Theater, where Zinka brilliantly performed in `Pathetic sonate`. In 1934 and he held her film debut - she played Mrs. Loiseau in `Pyshke`. Since 1935 Ranevskaya was the troupe of the Red Army, where, in addition to its traditional role in `Schukina suschestve` defenseless and in Glafira` last zhertve`, she played Vassa Zheleznova and Oksana in `Doom eskadry`. This period was also marked by intensive work on `Mosfilme` Ranevskaya. Also getting into the Duma `Golotu` about a Cossack (1937) and his wife in a tailor` Error Kochina` Engineer (1939), she played brilliantly in `Podkidyshe` (1939, Lala). Call `nervirovat` not become the hallmark of the actress, although eventually she hated that phrase, and even expressed their dissatisfaction with Brezhnev, who had the imprudence to say that when awarding the Order of Lenin Faina.
Bright and was very funny and full of Ranevskaya recurring role in `The Man in futlyare` (1939), and her madam Skorokhod in `Mechte` (1941) won the enthusiastic response of Roosevelt. During the war, Faina play in the theater of drama, a lot of shooting. Among her film heroine - tapersha in `Parhomenko` Alexander (1942), Aunt Adele in` New adventures Shveyka` (1943), and finally, the bride`s mother in `Svadbe` (1944). In 1947 he appeared in the form of Ranevskaya inimitable Margarita Lvovna in `Vesne` subsequently fragments the role it used to voicing Bok` Karlsone` (1970). Also in 1947, FG Ranevskaya starred in `Zolushke`, most replicas for his role as a stepmother she came up with herself. Unfortunately, the next screen heroines of the great actresses, including `Fitilya` subjects were less expressive, although, of course, became an ornament of any film.
In 1949 she was admitted to the troupe of the Moscow Soviet. In the play `Shtorm` with the permission of the Bill-Belotserkovsky words for his heroine actress Manka wrote yourself. G. Faina appeared on the scene in the first act, many viewers immediately after leaving the theater, which naturally caused resentment of her colleagues. In the end, the actress finally went wrong relationship with Zawadzki, and she went to the theater Pushkin. Return to the Moscow City Council was only in 1963, and revealed the dramatic and tragic side of talent Ranevskaya. She performed the central role in `Strange Mrs. Sevidzh` and` Next tishina` (this performance was filmed in 1978).
The last work Faina Ranevskaya - Felitsata in `Truth is well, but happiness luchshe` which she played from 1980 to 1983. In recent years, the great actress were very hard - she was suffering from both illnesses and loneliness. In the early sixties by special permission Furtsevoy to Ranevskaya arrived from France by her sister Bella, who died in 1964. The closest creatures to dog Faina Georgievna began, she picked up on the street. In 1983 Ranevskaya has ceased to act, and a year later, July 19, the legendary actress died.