Date of Birth: 10/26/1811
Place of birth: Bourg-la-Reine
Galois, Evariste (Galois, variste) (1811-1832), French mathematician. Born October 26, 1811 in the town of Bourg-la-Reine near Paris. In 1823, after a thorough home training under the guidance of his mother entered the fourth class of the Lyceum Louis le Grand in Paris. His first work on the periodic continued fractions, Galois published in 1828, still a student of the Lyceum. He intended to go to the Ecole Polytechnique, but twice fell through the entrance exam. He explained it by the fact that the questions put to him were children too, to respond to them. Finally, in 1830 he was admitted to the Normal School, but in 1831 expelled from it for "misconduct." In particular, he was accused of his "intolerable arrogance." Galois enthusiastically engaged in revolutionary activities, and eventually went to prison, where he stayed for several months. In May 1832 his turbulent life came to an end: he was killed in a duel, in which it has involved some sort of love story. On the eve of the duel he wrote a summary of his findings, and passed a note to one of the friends to report on them leading mathematicians. Note ended with the words: "You ask publicly Jacobi or Gauss to give an opinion is not about justice, and about the meaning of these theorems. After this, I hope there are people who consider it necessary to decipher all this mess. " As far as is known, did not get a letter Galois nor Jacobi or Gauss to. Mathematical circles found out about it only in 1846 when Liouville published most of the works of the scientist in his journal. All of them took only 60 pages of small format! And it contains a statement of the theory of groups - the key to modern algebra and modern geometry (at this time only the Cauchy began to publish his work in group theory); the first classification of irrationalities defined by algebraic equations - the doctrine, which is now called Galois theory, briefly; problems that we now refer to as an Abelian integrals. In Galois theory cleared up old questions such as trisection of the angle, doubling cube, the solution of cubic and biquadratic equations and all the degrees in the radicals. They set the conditions for solving such equations reducible to a system of algebraic equations of other lower degrees.