Date of Birth: 06/24/1795
Place of birth: Wittenberg
The cornerstone of Experimental Psychology
Ernst Heinrich Weber was born on June 24, 1795 th, in Wittenberg, Saxony, Holy Roman Empire (Wittenberg, Saxony, Holy Roman Empire), to Michael Weber`s family, Professor of Theology at the University of Wittenberg. Ernst early interest in physics and natural sciences, being severely affected by the influence of `akustiki` father, physicist Ernst Chladni (Ernst Chladni).
Weber studied medicine at the University of Wittenberg from 1811-th. Doctoral degree he received in 1815, at the University of Leipzig. Due to the effects of the Napoleonic wars, Ernst left his native city. By 1818 th Weber became professor of comparative anatomy at his alma mater. His first contribution he made to the anatomy of the 1834th, when trying to describe the sensitivity of the skin.
Giving a description of `minimum discernable raznitse`, sensory threshold variants, Weber writes:` Watching the discrepancy between the things that are compared, we perceive no difference between the very things, but the attitude of the difference between the compared veschami`. In other words, we are able to distinguish between the relative difference between the two elements, not absolute.
The first work of Weber threshold distinctiveness has been associated with differences in weight. He determined that the establishment of the differences are best given when the selected weight is different by 8-10%. For example, if you hold a 100g block, the second block should weigh at least 103 grams, so that you feel the difference.
Weber also suspected that for all the senses have their own thresholds legibility differential incentives. For example, the human ear for fixing the difference in the sound adjustment is required as a minimum difference of 0.006 oscillations per second.
Empirical psychophysical law of Weber - Fechner says that the intensity of feeling is directly proportional to the logarithm of the intensity of the stimulus. However, in the 20th century American psychologist Stanley Stevenson (Stanley Stevens) proposed to describe the bond strength of the stimulus and feeling the power law, and proved the limitations of the law of Weber-Fechner.
For most of his career, Weber worked with his brothers, Wilhelm Eduard Weber (Wilhelm Eduard Weber and Eduard Friedrich Weber (Eduard Friedrich Weber), and partner of Gustav Theodor Fechner (Gustav Theodor Fechner). Teamwork has helped Ernst complete studies of the central nervous system, auditory system, as well as deal with the functions of the brain, the circulatory system and so on. Most of the research has been associated with sensory physiology and psychology.
In 1821 Ernst ran a series of experiments on the physics of fluids, together with his younger brother William. The brothers followed the character of the movement of water particles in the propagation of waves on the water surface. The experiment has helped to make a detailed presentation of the principles of hydrodynamic circulation in the blood. In 1827 Ernst shed light on the elasticity of blood vessels, examining the movement of blood in the aorta in a continuous flow to the capillaries and arterioles.
Speaking of a differential threshold of irritation the next two points on the body, Weber developed a methodology and tools for the experimental study of the senses. To determine skin sensitivity threshold was coined sensimeter (or `compass Vebera`).
Ernst increased the distance between the two points of contact with the skin esthesiometry to determine at what distance the stimulation will be perceived as two separate points. Weber came to the conclusion that the different parts of the skin corresponds to a different sensitivity. For example, it was found that the lumbar back even when the distance between the contact points of 1.5 cm of contact points are often not separated.
Thermosensitive illusion that occurs due to a cold activation of cutaneous mechanoreceptors called `illusion Vebera`. Ernst said that cold objects appear heavier than warm objects of the same weight.
Using Weber multifactor experiments, precise measurements and research in the field of sensory psychology and sensory physiology laid the foundation for the adoption of experimental psychology and psychophysics as full area.
Ernst remained for many years a professor of anatomy at the University of Leipzig. Only towards the end of his life he became a professor of psychology. Weber left the university in 1871. He continued to work with his brother Edward; in 1845-m brothers dug the inhibitory effect of the vagus nerve on the heart activity. This discovery marked the beginning of ideas about braking as a special physiological phenomenon.
In the name of a German named `Weber psychophysiologist apparat` - sense organ of some bony fish, aquatic vertebrates allowing to judge the degree of filling their swim bladder gas. Weber described the device in 1820-m.
Ernst Heinrich Weber died on January 26, 1878 th, in Leipzig.
Meticulous notes and test new ideas in the book Weber `Der tastsinn und das gemeingef & # 252; hl` (. English` The sense of touch and the common sensibility`) led the Anglo-American experimental psychologist Edward Bradford Titchener (EB Titchener) called this `work the cornerstone of experimental psihologii`.
Another book by Weber, `Wellenlehre, auf Experimenten gegr & # 971; ndet` (. English` Wave Theory, Founded on Experiments`), was designed to instantly important to the physics and physiology.
While most psychologists of that time have been working from the table, Weber actively conducted experiments by manipulating only one variable, to get more accurate results.