Date of Birth: 06/27/1869
Citizenship: United States
founder of American anarchism
Emma Goldman - American anarchist and political activist; He played a key role in the development of anarchist political philosophy in North America and Europe in the first half of the 20th century.
Emma was born in Kovno, the Russian Empire - modern Kaunas, Lithuania (Kaunas, Lithuania). In the States she moved in 1885, settling in New York City (New York City). It was here in 1889 and Emma joined the anarchist movement was born only; spodvigla it to move in the history of the anarchist system with a demonstration on the Chicago Haymarket Square (Haymarket). Goldman has proved a senior writer and lecturer; devoted to her work was mostly anarchist philosophy, women`s rights and various social issues. Popularity Emma lectures was incredible - she gathered quite a crowd of thousands of listeners.
Emma did not avoid more radical techniques; so, with the anarchist Alexander Berkman (Alexander Berkman) - her old friend and lover - Goldman had planned the murder of the industrialist and financier Henry Clay Frick (Henry Clay Frick). Frick survived the attempt, but Berkman to prison still got 22 years. Goldman also repeatedly jailed for a variety of reasons - from `incitement to myatezhu` to illegal dissemination of information about birth control. In 1906 Goldman founded the anarchist journal `Mother Earth`.
In 1917, Goldman and Berkman were sentenced to two years in prison; it was assumed that they were plotting together `inciting citizens to refuse to registratsii` svezhezapuschennom appeal. Having stayed put, Goldman and Berkman were arrested again (along with several hundreds of brothers and sisters in distress) and deported to Russia. Goldman initially supported the Bolsheviks; his anarchist views changed after the uprising in Kronstadt. In the end, Emma felt that the Soviet government too harshly suppresses independent opinions; later, in 1923, its disappointment by the Russian authorities Goldman outlined in his book `My Disillusionment in Russia`. Some time Goldman has lived in England, Canada and France; During this period, Emma has published an autobiographical work `Living My Life`. After the start of the Spanish Civil War Goldman went in the throes of unrest the country in order to support the local anarchist movement and the revolution.
To the extent that, as in Europe flared World, Goldman seriously reconsider its position in relation to the wars organized by governments. Emma said that despite his dislike of Mussolini (Benito Mussolini), Franco (Francisco Franco), Hitler (Adolf Hitler) and Stalin, it still would not support a war against them for democratic regimes, on closer examination is not particularly different from fascist. According to Goldman, the French and the British have already missed your chance to speak out against fascism - and the impending war is inherently a `new form of world bezumiya`. This position was, to put it mildly, unpopular, mainly because of Hitler`s relations with the Jewish Diaspora.
February 7, 1940-th Goldman suffered a serious stroke; the right side of her body was completely paralyzed, and speechless Emma lost, retaining, however, a rumor. For Emma, ??one of the greatest era of speakers, speech loss was most severe blow. Over the next 3 months Goldman gradually start to rebound, however, she was waiting for her May 8 one more stroke. Emma Goldman died in Toronto on 14 May 1940; at the time of death, she was 70 years old.