Emily Greene Balch
Date of Birth: 08/01/1867
Place of birth: in the vicinity of Boston
Citizenship: United States
In 1896 she began to teach at Wesley College, from 1913 - professor of economics and sociology. In addition to the teaching activities performed various state and municipal obligations. He was a member of the state commission on education and immigration, and in 1913 headed the commission on the minimum wage, which is held the first national law on minimum pay labor. I take a proactive stance on social issues, and participated in the movement for women`s suffrage, racial equality, supervised child labor, for better working conditions. Widespread fame brought her book Our fellow Slavs (1910), in which she explored the main residence of the Slavs in the United States and Austria and Hungary - countries from which they emigrated. This allowed to refute the arguments of the racial inferiority of the Slavs, which were based on the requirements on the limitation of immigration to the United States.
The pacifist movement and participated in two of the Hague Congress on the World (1899 and 1907) were also part of the area of ??interest Bolchu, but only with the beginning of World War I in 1914, she realized that her main goal is to fight for the salvation of mankind from the threat of military conflict. As a delegate of the International Congress of Women in The Hague, she, along with Jane Addams and 40 other activists formed the United States delegation. During the war, she participated in the development of peaceful proposals for consideration by the warring parties; with a delegation from the Congress, she visited Russia and the Scandinavian countries, trying to persuade the governments of these countries to make a peaceful initiatives. Together with Jane Addams and Alice Hamilton, she wrote a book Woman in The Hague: International Women`s Congress and its results (1915).
Back in the US actively opposed US entry into the war. Wesley College Administration, annoyed glances Bolchu, refused to renew her contract. It was a turning point in her career. After leaving college, she began working in the "Nation" of the liberal magazine (Nation), speaking out against the war, mobilization of espionage laws.
In 1919 he became a delegate to the Second International Women`s Congress in Zurich. It became one of the founders of the Women`s International League for Peace and Freedom, becoming its first secretary-treasurer of (until 1922). However, in 1934, when the League was experiencing financial troubles, she returned to positions of leadership as the international secretary of the organization on a voluntary basis. It was for his work in the League of the Nobel Committee awarded its Peace Prize in 1946.
In the interwar period, it played an active role, performing various peacekeeping missions of governments, international organizations, the various commissions. Without her participation does not cost the many projects of the League of Nations - such as disarmament, the internationalization of aviation, drug control.
With the spread of Nazism she moved away from the ideas of non-resistance to evil and become a stick to more stringent anti-fascist views, especially during the Second World War. In the center of its attention were plans for the establishment of peace in the world by the internationalization of key water resources, aviation, etc.
Even after receiving the Nobel Peace Prize in 1946, at age 79, she continued to maintain a working relationship with the Women`s International League for Peace and Freedom, has as its honorary member.
Proceedings: Approaches to the Great Settlement, with an Introduction by Norman Angell. New York, Husbach, 1918; Our Slavic Fellow-Citizens. New York, Charities Publication Committee, 1910; Public Assistance of the Poor in France. Baltimore, American Economic Association, 1893; Balch, Emily Greene, with Jane Addams and Alice Hamilton, Women at The Hague: The International Congress of Women and Its Results. New York, Macmillan, 1915; The Miracle of Living. New York, Island Press, 1941.