Date of Birth: 03/27/1902
Benveniste, Emile (Benveniste, & # 201; mile) (1902-1976), a French linguist. Born March 27, 1902 in Aleppo (Aleppo, modern. Syria). He studied at the Sorbonne and then at the Paris Higher School of practical studies in A.Meye. Since 1937 Professor of the College de France (inherited chair A.Meye). From 1959 until the end of life - the permanent secretary of the Linguistic Society of Paris, which became a member in 1920. Honorary member of many academies and scientific societies. Benveniste died in Paris on March 3, 1976.
As Indo-Europeists Benveniste sought to synthesize the tradition of classical science of the 19th century. structuralism and ideas, striving for a systematic approach (in an interview shortly before his death Benveniste said that nakakih other linguistics but structural, can not be by definition). The author of works on behalf of the word-formation and the root structure of Indo-European languages. Many studies focus on the Iranian languages ??Benveniste, Indo-Aryan and the Hittite-Luwian language. Benveniste - author of a two-volume Dictionary of Indo-European social terms (Le vocabulaire des institutiones indo-europe & # 233; nes, 1970).
In the field of general linguistics, Benveniste published a relatively small amount of work, mostly collected in the book Problems in General Linguistics (Problem & # 233; s de linguistique g & # 233; n & # 233;. Rale, 1966, Russian translation 1974.). Without seeking to establish a comprehensive linguistic theory, Benveniste was limited to the consideration of certain important problems (classification of languages, the device-level model of language, the structure of relative clause, subjectivity in language and some others).
Benveniste disagreed succession provisions of Ferdinand de Saussure, in particular, about the arbitrariness of the sign, indicating that randomness occurs only in terms of naming extralinguistic reality, but the relation between the two parties to sign and between the characters in the system is not arbitrary. Agreeing with glossematics and descriptivists that linguistics should formulate their own ideas in their own terms, without borrowing them from other sciences, Benveniste noted the psychological significance of the basic concepts of linguistics, including phonemes. Deemed necessary, NOT LIMITED study language form, explore the function of language: "The form gets the character structure just because all the components of a performing a particular function." These ideas Benveniste brings him to the Prague Linguistic Circle.
Article categories of thought and categories of language (Cat & # 233; gories de pens & # 233; e et cat & # 233; gories de langue, 1958) Benveniste pointed out that the prerequisite for the implementation of ideas is its linguistic form; but we can not assume that the language - a form of thought, and that there are some common, language-independent categories of thought (substance, quantity, time, etc.). According to Benveniste, many of these categories, selected by Aristotle, really reflect the structural features of the Ancient Greek language: notions of time are associated with the existence of this language in the grammatical category of time, Aristotelian logic - not that other, as schematized Greek syntax, etc .; however, many of these categories are not unique to ancient Greek, but the Indo-European languages ??in general.