Date of Birth: 0536
Place of birth: Ephesus
Greek philosopher, known as "dark". Heraclitus belonged to the royal family, but renounced his rights (in the then already rated Ephesus, who gave only a few honors) in favor of his brother. From the writings of Heraclitus only about nature (there are other versions of the title) are preserved only small fragments.
Heraclitus in Greek philosophy the first set in the center of his system and change the order of the problem that makes him a ruthless criticism of mankind. He laments the fact that people are not able to understand the Logos, the universal basis of all things, in harmony with which should take place all natural phenomena and on the basis of which should be based behavior. In part, this logo can be see in the fire: because of the regularity of its change (fire uniformly absorbs fuel and emits flames and smoke) fire is the perfect embodiment of the measure, which Heraclitus observed in great mutual space transitions of the basic substances constituting the world - ethereal flame, water and ground. It harmonizes the Logos, or measure, and not derived from a single matter postroyayuschey space, giving the world the essential unity, which was the starting point for Heraclitus and other Presocratics.
The physical world seems Heraclitus scene of incessant changes, but these changes are ordered unity, which gave them the Logos. "Belonging to one and the same river washed more and more water." In most of the changes Heraclitus sees their dependence on their opposites. But the opposition, which Heraclitus and Anaximander decomposed any distinction, have the internal unity. For example, day and night, which at first glance seem to be completely separated and opposed to each other, in fact, thanks to its continuous sequence form a unified their underlying continuity. In some ways, this is due to "fight", but this struggle is not an "injustice" because it is ordered by the Logos, present in all natural objects, so that if the struggle ceased to destroy all The orderly interaction, and thus the unity of the world order and even its very existence.
Man is vital to understand the Logos, as the very soul of man is created from the fire, which can be dimmed or extinguished moisture generated by stupidity, as well as sleep or death. When active, the soul of the material in contact with the fiery element of external things and eats them. If the soul is opposed to stupidity, vice and gradual moisture, which brings with it gradually creeping death, she will even be able to survive the death of time, stored in the form of an impersonal divine fire.